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1995.08 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3
1995.10 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 13
1995.12 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 23
1996.01 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 33
1996.05 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 43
1996.08 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 53
1996.10 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 63
1996.12 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 73
1997.01 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 83
1997.05 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 93 1997.08 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 103 1997.10 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 113 1997.12 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 123 1998.01 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 133 1998.05 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 143 1998.08 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 153 1998.10 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 163 1999.01 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 173 1999.05 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 183 1999.08 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 193 1999.10 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 202 2000.01 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 211 2000.05 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 220 2000.08 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 230 2000.10 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 240 2001.01 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 249 2001.05 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 259 2001.08 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 269 2001.10 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 279 2002.01 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 289 2002.05 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 299 2002.08 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 309 2002.09 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 319 2002.10 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 329 2003.01 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 339 2003.08 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 349 2003.10 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 359 2004.01 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 369 2004.05 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 379 2004.08 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 389 2004.10 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 399
2005.01 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 408 2005.05 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 418 2005.08 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 428

1995.08
Question 1-9
Investigation of the Deep-Ocean
Keywords: ocean, researchers, techniques, samples, rocks
The ocean bottom – a region nearly 2.5 times greater than the total land area of the Earth –
that even today is largely unexplored and uncharted. Until about a century ago, the deep – ocean floor was
subjected to intense pressures hundreds of times greater than at the Earth’s surface, the deep – ocean bottom
Although researchers have taken samples of deep – ocean rocks and sediments for over a century, the first detailed global investigation of the ocean bottom did not actually start until 1968, with the beginning of the National Science Foundation’s Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP). Using techniques first developed for the offshore oil and gas industry, the DSDP’s drill ship, the Glomar Challenger, was able to maintain a steady
the ocean floor.
The Glomar Challenger completed 96 voyages in a 15 – year research program that ended in November 1983. During this time, the vessel logged 600,000 kilometers and took almost 20,000 core samples of seabed sediments and rocks at 624 drilling sites around the world. The Glomar Challenger’s core samples have allowed geologists to reconstruct what the planet looked like hundreds of millions of years ago and to calculate what it will probably look like millions of years in the future. Today, largely on
of evidence gathered during the Glomar Challenger’s voyages, nearly all earth scientists agree on the theories of plate tectonics and continental drift that explain many of the geological processes that shape the Earth.
The cores of sediment drilled by the Glomar Challenger have also yielded information critical to understanding the world’s past climates. Deep – ocean sediments provide a climatic record stretching
back chemical and biological activity that rapidly destroy much land – based evidence of past climates. This record has already provided insights into the patterns and causes of past climatic change – information that may be
used to predict future climates.

(A) is not a popular area for scientific research
(B) contains a wide variety of life forms
(C) attracts courageous explorers
(D) is an unknown territory

(A) unrecognizable
(B) unreachable
(C) unusable
(D) unsafe
3. The author mentions
in line 5 because
(A) the Earth’s climate millions of years ago was similar to conditions in outer space
(B) it is similar to the ocean floor in being alien to the human environment
(C) rock formations in outer space are similar to those found on the ocean floor
(D) techniques used by scientists to explore outer space were similar to those used in ocean exploration
4. Which of the following is true of the Glomar Challenger?
(A) It is a type of submarine.
(B) It is an ongoing project.
(C) It has gone on over 100 voyages.
(D) It made its first DSDP voyage in 1968.

(A) breaking
(B) locating
(C) removing
(D) analyzing
6. The Deep Sea Drilling Project was significant because it was
(A) an attempt to find new sources of oil and gas
(B) the first extensive exploration of the ocean bottom
(C) composed of geologists from all over the world
(D) funded entirely by the gas and oil industry

(A) basis
(B) purpose
(C) discovery
(D) endurance

(A) years
(B) climates
(C) sediments
(D) cores
9. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage as being a result of the Deep Sea Drilling Project?
(A) Geologists were able to determine the Earth’s appearance hundreds of millions of years ago.
(B) Two geological theories became more widely accepted by scientists.
(C) Information was revealed about the Earth’s past climatic changes.
(D) Geologists observed forms of marine life never before seen.

Questions 10-21
Basic to any understanding of Canada in 20 years after the Second World War is the country’s impressive population growth. For every three Canadians in 1945, there were over
in 1996. In September 1966
depression of the 1930’s and the war had held back marriages and the catching – up process began after 1945. The baby boom continued through the decade of the 1950’s, producing a population increase of nearly fifteen percent in the five years from 1951 to 1956. This rate of increase had been exceeded only once before in Canada’s history, in the decade before 1911, when the prairies were being settled. Undoubtedly, the good economic conditions of the 1950’s supported a growth in the population, but the expansion also derived from a
stood at 28 per thousand, one of the highest in the world.

stood at the lowest level in 25 years. Partly this decline reflected the low level of births during the depression and the war, but it was also caused by changes in Canadian society. Young people were staying at school longer, more women were working, young married couples were buying automobiles or houses before starting families, rising living standards were cutting down the size of families. It appeared that Canada was once more falling in step with the trend toward smaller families that had occurred all through the Western world since the time of the Industrial Revolution.
Although the growth in Canada’s population has slowed down by 1966 (the increase in the first half of the 1960’s was only nine percent). Another large population wave was coming over the horizon.
would be
10. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) Educational changes in Canadian society.
(B) Canada during the Second World War
(C) Population trends in postwar Canada
(D) Standards of living in Canada
11. According to the passage, when did Canada’s baby boom begin?
(A) In the decade after 1911
(B) After 1945
(C) During the depression of the 1930’s
(D) In 1966

(A) Canadians
(B) Years
(C) Decades
(D) Marriages

(A) new
(B) extra
(C) accelerating
(D) surprising
14. The author suggests that in Canada during the 1950’s
(A) the urban population decreased rapidly
(B) fewer people married
(C) economic conditions were poor
(D) the birth rate was very high

(A) tendency
(B) aim
(C) growth
(D) directive

(A) pointed
(B) dismal
(C) mountain
(D) maximum
17. When was the birth rate in Canada at its lowest postwar level?
(A) 1966
(B) 1957
(C) 1956
(D) 1951
18. The author mentions all of the following as causes of declines in population growth after 1957 EXCEPT
(A) people being better educated
(B) people getting married earlier
(C) better standards of living
(D) couples buying houses
19. It can be inferred from the passage that before the industrial Revolution
(A) families were larger
(B) population statistic were unreliable
(C) the population grew steadily
(D) economic conditions were bad

(A) horizon
(B) population wave
(C) nine percent
(D) first half

(A) behind
(B) Since
(C) During
(D) Preceding
Questions 22-30
Organic Foods
Keywords: food, consumers, health, vitamins, eggs
Are organically grown foods the best food choices? The advantages claimed for such foods over
a term whose meaning varies greatly – frequently proclaim that such products are safer and more nutritious than
The growing interest of consumers in the safety and more nutritional quality of the typical North American
food supply is unsafe or inadequate in meeting nutritional needs. Although most of these claims are not supported by scientific evidence, the preponderance of written material advancing such claims makes it difficult for the general public to separate fact from fiction. As a result, claims that eating a diet consisting entirely of organically grown foods prevents or cures disease or provides other benefits to health have become widely publicized and form the basis for folklore.
Almost daily the public is besieged by claims for no-aging diets, new vitamins, and other wonder foods. There are numerous
reports that natural vitamins are superior to synthetic ones, that fertilized eggs are nutritionally superior to unfertilized eggs, that untreated grains are better than fumigated grains and the like.
One thing that most organically grown food products seem to have in common is that they cost more than conventionally grown foods. But in many cases consumers are misled if they believe organic foods can
for concern if consumers, particularly those with limited incomes, distrust the regular food and buy only expensive organic foods instead.
(A) Proponents
(B) Merchants
(C) Inspectors
(D) Consumers

(A) advantages
(B) advocates
(C) organic foods
(D) products

(A) interest in food safety and nutritional quality of the typical North American diet
(B) the nutritional quality of the typical North American diet
(C) the amount of healthy food grown in North America
(D) the number of consumers in North America
(A) It is accepted by most nutritionists.
(B) It has been used only in recent years.
(C) It has no fixed meaning.
(D) It is seldom used by consumers.

(A) unbelievable
(B) uncontested
(C) unpopular
(D) unverified

(A) improve
(B) monitor
(C) preserve
(D) restore
28. The author implies that there is cause for concern if consumers with limited incomes buy organic foods
instead of conventionally grown foods because
(A) organic foods can be more expensive but are often no better than conventionally grown foods
(B) many organic foods are actually less nutritious than similar conventionally grown foods
(C) conventionally grown foods are more readily available than organic foods
(D) too many farmers will stop using conventional methods to grow food crops.
29. According to the last paragraph, consumers who believe that organic foods are better than conventionally
grown foods are often
(A) careless
(B) mistaken
(C) thrifty
(D) wealthy
30. What is the author’s attitude toward the claims made by advocates of health foods?
(A) Very enthusiastic
(B) Somewhat favorable
(C) Neutral
(D) Skeptical
Questions 31-40
There are many theories about the beginning of drama in ancient Greece. The one most widely accepted today is based on the assumption that drama evolved from ritual. The argument for this view goes as follows. In the beginning, human beings viewed the natural forces of the world, even the seasonal changes, as
measures which appeared to bring the desired results were then retained and repeated until they hardened into fixed rituals. Eventually stories arose which explained or veiled the mysteries of the rites. As time passed some rituals were abandoned, but the stories, later called myths, persisted and provided material for art and drama.
Those who believe that drama evolved out of ritual also argue that those rites contained the seed of theater because music, dance, masks, and costumes were almost always used. Furthermore, a suitable site had to be provided for performances, and when the entire community did not participate, a clear division was usually made between the acting area and the auditorium. In addition, there were performers, and since
assumed that task. Wearing masks and costumes,
often impersonated other people, animals, or supernatural beings, and mimed the desired effect – success in hunt or battle, the coming rain, the revival of the Sun – as an actor might. Eventually such dramatic representations were separated from religious activities. Another theory traces the theater’s origin from the human interest in storytelling. According to this view, tales (about the hunt, war, or other feats) are gradually elaborated, at first through the use of impersonation, action, and dialogue by a narrator and then through the assumption of each of the roles by a different person.
A closely related theory traces theater to those dances that are primarily rhythmical and gymnastic or that are imitations of animal movements and sounds.
31. What does the passage many discuss?
(A) The origins of theater
(B) The role of ritual in modern dance
(C) The importance of storytelling
(D) The variety of early religious activities.

(A) seasonal changes
(B) natural forces
(C) theories
(D) human beings
33. What aspect of drama does the author discuss in the first paragraph?
(A) The reason drams is often unpredictable
(B) The seasons in which dramas were performed
(C) The connection between myths and dramatic plots
(D) The importance of costumes in early drama
34. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a common element of theater and ritual?
(A) Dance
(B) Costumes
(C) Music
(D) Magic

(A) thoughtful
(B) substantial
(C) relational
(D) ceremonial

(A) establishment
(B) performance
(C) authorization
(D) season

(A) mistakes
(B) costumes
(C) animals
(D) performers
38. According to the passage, what is the main difference between ritual and drama?
(A) Ritual uses music whereas drama does not.
(B) Ritual is shorter than drama.
(C) Ritual requires fewer performers than drama.
(D) Ritual has a religious purpose and drama does not.
39. The passage supports which of the following statements?
(A) No one really knows how the theater began
(B) Myths are no longer represented dramatically.
(C) Storytelling is an important part of dance
(D) Dramatic activities require the use of costumes.
40. Where in the passage does the author discuss the separation of the stage and the audience?
(A) Lines 4-6
(B) Lines 6-7
(C) Lines 11-12
(D) Lines 15-17
Questions 41-50
tasks confronted the people of the united States, North and South, when the Civil war ended. About a million and a half soldiers from both sides had to be demobilized, readjusted to civilian life, and reabsorbed by
economy. Civil government also had to be put back on a peacetime basis and interference from the military had to be stopped.
The desperate plight of the South has eclipsed the fact that reconstruction had to be undertaken also in the North, though less spectacularly. Industries had to adjust to peacetime conditions, factories had to be retooled for civilian needs.
Financial problems loomed large in both the North and the South. The national debt had shot up from a modest $65 million in 1861, the year the ear started to nearly $3 billion in 1865, the year the war ended. This was a colossal sum for those days but one that a prudent government could pay. At the same time, war taxes had to be reduced to less burdensome levels.

Physical devastation caused by invading armies, chiefly in the South and border states, had to be repaired. Other important questions needed answering. What would be the future of the four million black people

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