中石油职称英语考试教程

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摘要

2.America’s Luckiest Stamp Find(参考译文:美国最幸运的邮票的发现)
1.The first United States airmail stamp has had an interesting story.printed in 1918,this 24-cent stamp with a blue plane inside a rose border became the center of much attention. One hundred of the stamps sold to the public became known as inverts, for the plane was printed upside down.Some of these upside-down airmail stamps are now worth over $6,000.
1.关于美国的第一枚航空邮票有一个有趣的故事。这枚面值仅24美分的邮票印刷于1918年,玫瑰花边的中间有一架蓝色的飞机,成为人们关注的中心。因为蓝色的飞机被印颠倒了,仅仅有一百枚这种“倒转”邮票卖给公众。现在,有些这种“倒转”航空邮票价值超过6000美元。
2.The story of these stamps began on May 14,1918,the day after they were placed on sale.In Washington,D.C.,W.T.Robey,a man interested in stamps,decided to buy a sheet of the new stamps and so went to the New York Avenue branch post office in Washington.When the clerk handed him a sheet of the stamps Robey noted that they were poorly centered.He looked at other sheets and found that none was well centered.The clerk asked Robey to return later in the day when more stamps were expected.
2.关于这些邮票的故事发生在1918年5月14日,该日是它们开始销售的第二天。在首都华盛顿,一个集邮爱好者,罗比,决定去买一整版新邮票,于是他来到华盛顿市纽约大街的邮政支局。当职员递给他一版新邮票时,罗比看到它们(印刷)的中心位置很差。他看了其它几版,没有一个摆正中心位置。职员告诉罗比当天晚些时候来退换,估计那时有更多邮票到货。
3.About noon Robey came back,and the same clerk was on duty.He reached for the new sheets and handed one to Robey.The collector’s heart stood still as he saw that the sheet which had been offered him had inverted centers.
3.罗比大约中午时候回来时,还是那个职员值班。他伸手够到新货取出一版递给罗比。当这个集邮者看到邮票时他的心跳刹那间停顿了,给他的这版邮票有一个倒转的中心。
4.Excited by his find,Robey shopped other branch post offices for more sheets with inverted centers but found none.Then he told his friends of his discovery,and they,too,looked in the city’s post offices-also in vain.
4.罗比被他的发现振奋,他到其它邮政支局去寻购更多张“倒转”邮票,但是毫无结果。之后,他告诉他的朋友们他的这个发现,他们如他一样,找遍了全城的邮政支局,同样途劳无功。
5.Not being a rich man,Robey decided to cash in on his good fortune.He turned down the first offer of $500 from a Washington stamp shop owner and took the sheet to New York.There he planned to show it to a collector,Colonel E.H.R.Green,as well as to stamp dealers.
5.罗比不是富人,他决定把他的好运气换成钱。他拒绝了一个华盛顿集邮商店老板500美元的第一个报价,带着邮票去纽约。他计划把“倒转”邮票拿给一个名叫COLONEL的集邮者和一些邮票商看。
6.Colonel Green was out of the city,and no one else wanted to bid on the sheet for fear that Robey’s might not be the only upside-down sheet.As the news of his find spread,many people said that other such sheets had been found.These stories proved to be false.

6.COLONEL先生不在纽约,而没有其他任何人想报价,他们害怕罗比的邮票不是唯一的“倒转”邮票。当关于罗比的发现的消息扩散开后,很多人声称找到了其它这样的邮票。很快证实那些话都不真实。

7.Robey left New York without having made a sale,and stopped in philadelphia on the way home.There,dealer Eugene Klein arranged to buy the sheet for $15,000,and finally did buy it.within a few days,Klein sold the sheet to Colonel Green,the same collector whom Robey had failed to contact in Texas at the time,and that Klein phoned him there and sold him the sheet,sight unseen,for $20,000! Robey’s sheet had cost him $24,and his profit was $14,976 while Klein gained $5,000.

7.罗比没有卖出邮票离开纽约,回家的路上他停脚费城。在那儿,一个邮票商克林安排15000美元收购全版“倒转票”,最终成交。几天之内,克林转手全版“倒转票”给COLONEL先生,就是在德州与罗比失之交臂的那个邮票商,而当克林打电话给德州的COLONEL先生,卖给他全版“倒转票”时,他看都没看,出价20000美元!罗比付出24美元买全版“倒转票”,他的利润是14976美元,而克林先生赚了5000美元。

8.Of the 100 stamps first bought by Mr.Robey,stamp collectors are now able to account for 90.What has happened to the others is not known.When a copy is offered for sale it is a major event in the stamp world.A single such stamp has been sold for as much as $6,500.Few people have ever even seen a copy.Yet no matter how much this valuable stamp is bought and sold,no owner can match the thrill that W.T.Robey had on that day in 1918 when he made America’s luckiest stamp find!

8.罗比先生最先购买的100枚邮票中,现在集邮者们能统计出的仅有90枚。没有人知道另外一些邮票的下落和故事。今天,一个“倒转票”的拷贝出售都是集邮界的大事。仅仅单枚这样的邮票曾经卖到6500美元。甚至是复制品也几乎没人看到过。不论这种价值极高的邮票卖多少钱、买多少钱,没有一个所有者的兴奋可与罗比在1918年发现最幸运的美国邮票那天的兴奋相比!
5.The First Jet
It was just noon on that 25th day of April,1945.I had gone through my first minutes of combat.The 456th Bomber Group,based in Italy,had gone into Austria.They had hit the railroad yards at Linz along the Danube River.
My job was to drop chaff.They were the little bundles of tin that confused enemy radar.Through the 3-inch-square chaff chute,I could see the enemy shells exploding just below us.
Just after bombs away, a sharp blow rocked our plane.An enemy shell had ripped a hold in the floor of the airplane.It was about a yard from the engineer’s feet.
Engineer to pilot, his voice said, we’ve been hit.
Bad?
Dont’t think so.It missed the control cables-went out through the top.
No more talk.It was over.But it left a shaky feeling.We knew that the war was almost over.A guy’s chances of getting home were good.
Each of us was thinking the same thing.If that shell had hit us half a second sooner,it might have hit the pilot.There inches to the left and it would have cut some cables.A tiny instant later,and it would have hit one of us.
The bomb run ended.The bomb bay doors slid shut.Suddenly we were in the clear open sky.
We let ourselves feel a bit safer now.We had the three-hour flight home.It was across part of Yugoslavia.Then came the voice of our nose gunner.
Fighter.Eleven o’clock low.Coming in fast.
Whose? somebody said.
Not ours, came the answer,forward. Never saw anything like it. it’s closing in now…fast…fast…never saw anything so fast.
I see him! the left waist gunner said.It’s a jet-one of those new Me 262’s!
Can’t even hold him in the sight, the gunner said.
If one of their new jets hits you,just start shooting and hope that you hit him.You won’t get a chance to aim.That’s what we had been told.The enemy had a fighter so fast we couldn’t even hold a sight on it.It was something we had never heard of.Something they called a jet.
And now the jet came at us!Our nose turret turned wildly to follow it .The electric motors of the turret hummed.The gunner tried to bring his guns around.
Looking over the other waist gunner’s shoulder,I saw the enemy jet.Saw its shining green nose and its high rudder.It knifed through the spring air toward our plane.
In seconds the jet’s cannon would fire.In seconds it would all be over.Our bomber would fold.It would streak down to smash in the mountains below.
In seconds…Then I noticed that it had not yet fired a single shot.All of us stared.We were ready for the blow.But no one fired!
The jet was in range.Its shining nose was on us as it closed in for the kill.
Then the unbelievable: the enemy jet leveled off.It flashed below us and was gone.
Close! somebody said.Too close!
Then we went back to the business of getting home.I guess most of the crew forgot about that jet that had us in its sights.But I have never forgotten it.
Was the German pilot out of ammunition? Did his guns jam at the last second? Or was it more than that? Was the tired of killing?
I’ll never be sure.I don’t know what held the fire of our own gunners.But the sky changed from a rain of hate to blue sky of hope.
参考译文:第一架喷气机
事情发生在1945年4月25日的中午。我正在执行我的第一次战斗任务。基地在意大利的第456轰炸机群刚刚飞
进奥地利。他们要轰炸多瑙河沿岸位于林滋的铁路工厂。
我的工作是抛撒干扰片。它们是锡制的很小的捆,能够干扰敌人的雷达。透过3平方英寸(抛撒)干扰片斜道,我能看到敌人的炮弹就在我们(飞机肚子)底下爆炸。
刚刚执行“开始轰炸”命令,一下急速的打击使我们的飞机摇晃起来。敌人的一颗炮弹已经在飞机的地板上撕破一个大洞。它距离工程师的脚不过一码。
“工程师呼叫机长,”(耳机中)他的声音说道,“我们被击中了。”
“很严重吗?”
“不太严重。它没有击中控制线,穿过顶棚出去了。”
没有更多的交谈。这件事过去了。但是它留下令人震撼的感觉。我们都知道战争几乎结束。一个军人战后回家的机会很高。
我们中的每个人都在想同样的事。如果那颗炮弹早半秒击中我们,它可能击中机长。只要偏左3英寸,它将会割断某些控制缆。稍微迟后瞬间,它将击中我们中的一个。
轰炸循环结束了。弹舱门关上了。刹那间我们冲入晴朗的广阔天空。
现在我们使自己感到多了一点安全。我们要用3个小时飞回家。正在横穿南斯拉夫某地。这时传来我们的前机枪手的声音。
“战斗机。11点方向下。逼近得非常快。”
“谁的?”有人问。
“不是我们的,”从前方传来回答,“从来没有见过像这样的东西。”现在它正在接近,太快了,太快了,从来没有见过任何东西这么快。”
“我看到它了!”左腰部机枪手说。“它是架喷气机,是新型ME262中的一架!”
“简直不能„盯‟住它,”机枪手说。
我们曾被告知:如果他们的新型喷气机冲向你,立即扫射,但愿你打中它,你没有瞄准它的机会。敌人有一种战斗机太快,我们甚至不能„看‟住它。这是我们从没听说过的东西,敌人称之为“喷气机”。
现在喷气机冲向我们!我们的前炮塔发疯似地旋转着跟随它。炮塔的电动机嗡嗡叫。机枪手试图带着他的枪转动。 从另外一个腰部机枪手的肩上看去,我看到了敌人的喷气机。看到了它的闪亮的绿色鼻子和高高的方向舵。它刀劈般穿过春天的天空接近我们的飞机。
几秒中内喷气机的大炮将开火,几秒钟内一切将结束。我们的轰炸机将折叠成团。它将瞬间下坠粉碎在下面的山上。
几秒钟内……突然,我注意到它没有发射一发子弹。我们所有人都凝视着。我们已经准备着爆炸。但是没有人开火。 喷气机确实在射程以内。它闪亮的鼻子对着我们,似乎它要靠近来进行屠杀。

这时令人难以致信的事情发生了,敌人的喷气机与我们的飞机拉成水平。它闪向我们的下面,然后离去。
“太近了!”有人说。“太近了!”
之后,大家重新回到飞回家的事情里。我猜想机组的大多数人现在已经忘掉那架置我们于其视距的喷气机。但是,我从来没有忘掉它。
是德国飞行员没有弹药?是最后一秒他的机枪卡壳?或者还有更多隐情?或者是他已经厌倦于杀戮?
我可能永远不会弄清。我也不知道为什么我们的机枪手没有开火。但是天变了,从一个讨厌的雨天变成我们所希望的蓝天。

6.The art of public Speaking(参考译文:公共演讲的艺术)
1.The need for effective public speaking will almost certainly touch you sometime in your life.When it does,you want to be ready.But even if you never give another speech in your life,you still have much to gain from studying public speaking.Your speech class will give you training in researching topic,organizing your ideas,and presenting yourself skillfully.The training is invaluable for every type of communication.
1.在你生活的某个时刻,几乎必定需要做某种有影响力的公开演讲。当这个时刻来到时,你希望自己十分有把握。但是,即便你从未发表过一个演讲,你仍然会从学习公共演说中获益良多。你的演讲课将会在研究主题、组织思路、和表现技巧方面对你进行训练。这种训练对任何类型的交流都是非常宝贵的。
2.There are many similarities between public speaking and daily conversation.The three major goals of public speaking-to inform,to persuade,to entertain-are also the three major goals of everyday conversation.In conversation,almost without thinking about it,you employ a wide range of skills,You organize your ideas logically.You tailor your message to your audience.You tell a story for maximum impact.You adapt to feedback from your listener.These are among the most important skills you will need for public speaking.
2.在公开演讲和每日交谈之间有许多类似的东西。演说的三个主要目的是:传达、说服、吸引,这些也是每日交谈的三个主要目的。在交谈中,你已经不假思索地使用很多技巧。你有条理地组织你的观点,你根据听众修改信息。你选择讲述某个故事以取得最大的效果。你从听众的反馈中改变自己。这些是你在公开演讲时所需要的最重要的技巧。
3.Of course,public speaking is also different from conversation.First,public speaking is more highly structured than conversation.It usually imposes strict time limitations on the speaker,and it requires more detailed preparation than dose ordinary conversation.Second,speechmarking requires more formal language.Listeners react negatively to speeches loaded with slang,jargon,and bad grammar.Third,public speaking demands a different method of delivery.Effective speakers adjust their voices to the larger audience and work at avoiding distracting physical mannerism and verbal habits.
3.当然,公开演说不同于交谈。首先,公开演讲比交谈要有更高的组织结构性。公开演说者通常受严格的时间限制,故此它需要比普通交谈更细致的准备。其次,公开演说需要使用正式语言。听众对充满俚语、行话、和语法错误的讲话反应消极。第三,公开演说需要用一种不同声调和姿势。有影响力的演说者调整他的声调去面对大量的观众,力求避免分散人注意力的身体习惯动作,力求避免习惯性口头语。
4.One of the major concerns of students in any speech class is stage fright.Actually,most successful speakers are nervous before making a speech.Your speech class will give you an opportunity to gain confidence and make your nervousness work for you rather than against you.You will take a big step toward overcoming stage fright if you think positively,choose speech topics you really care about,prepare thoroughly,and concentrate on communicating with your audience.Like many students over the years,you too can develop confidence in your speechmaking abilities.
4.在任何一个演讲教师里,学生最主要的担心之一就是怕上台。事实上,最成功的演说家在发表一场演讲之前也会紧张。你的演讲教室将给你一个获得信心的机会,让你的紧张的神经帮助你而不是阻碍你。如果你能这样积极地考虑,你将会朝着战胜怯场的方向迈进一大步:选择你真正关心的演讲主题,充分地准备,集中精力与你的听众沟通。如同数年以来在此学习的许多学生,你同样能够在你的演讲能力上提高信心。
5.The speech communication process as a whole includes seven elements-speaker,message,channel,listener,feedback,interference,and situation.The speaker is the person who initiates a speech transaction.Whatever the speaker communicates is the message,which is sent by means of a particular channel.The listener receives the communicated message and may provide feedback to the speaker.Interference is anything that impedes the communication of a message,and the situation is the time and place in which speech communication occurs.The interaction of these seven elements is what determines the outcome in any instance of speech communication.
5.语言交流的过程,整体而言包括七个要素:演说者、信息、沟通途径、听众、反馈、外界干扰、和现场形态。演说者是演讲事件的开始者。演说者传递的是信息,它必经某种特定沟通途径传送出去。听众接受传达到的信息,并且向演说者提供反馈。外界干扰是妨碍信息沟通的任何事物,而现场形态是演说发生的时间和地点。这七个要素的相互作用决定任何情况下演说交流的效果。

6.Because speechmakeing is a form of power,it carries with it heavy ethical responsibilities.Ethical speakers use sound means to achieve sound goals.They do this by being well informed about their subjects by being honest in what they say,by using sound evidence,and by employing valid reasoning.

6.因为演讲是力量的一种表现形态,它承载着很重的道德责任。有道德的演说者用声音的方式去实现声音的目的。他们通过很好阐述他们的主题、通过诚实于他们所说的话、通过使用可靠的论据、以及通过正确的评论做这件事。

8.How Animals Hear(参考译文:动物如何听到声音)
1.When we talk about ears,we usually mean the oddly wrinkled appendages on the sides of our heads. 1.当我们提到耳朵,通
常指那个生长在我们头部两侧的奇怪的褶皱的附属肢体。
2.We are aware that at the end of the central hole in this outer ear there is something called the middle ear,with an eardrum and a few little bones.Even deeper lies the inner ear,the organ with which we hear.
2.我们知道,在外耳中孔的底部有东西称作中耳,它由一个耳鼓和一些小骨骼构成。而真正能使我们“听”的器官在更深处的内耳。
3.Animals such as dogs and cats also have conspicuous outer ears,but few of us probably ever stopped to think whether there might be such a thing as a middle and inner ear beneath those pointed tips.Yet,we know very well that these animmals hear.
3.诸如猫和狗这样的动物也有引人注目的外耳,但很少人能够停下来去想,在竖立的尖儿下面,是否那里也有类似于中耳和内耳的东西。但是我们很清楚地知道这些动物都能够听到。
4.Birds are even more mysterious,because here we do not even see an outer ear.The same is true to still a larger degree of such animals as frogs and fishes,although in the frog we can at least see an eardrum. 4.鸟类甚至更为神秘,因为我们甚至看不到它们有一个外耳。还有很大数量的动物如青蛙和鱼类也是如此,虽然我们至少可以看到青蛙有一个耳鼓。
5.Again,at one time or another,you may have found that all such animals hear.Hunters know that birds are attracted by artificial calls,and fishermen emphasize that you should be as quiet(原文quite) as possible if you don’t want to go home empty handed.And if you ever hunted frogs in your childhood,you know how softly you had to tread!Moreover,it seems absurd that birds should sing and frogs croak,if they could not even hear their own voices. 5.此外,你可能曾经发现所有的这些动物都在听。猎人们知道鸟类会被人造的声音所吸引,渔夫们则强调,如果你不想空手而归的话就要尽可能的安静。如果你在童年抓过青蛙,你应该知道要多么轻柔地走动。说实话,青蛙在叫,鸟儿在唱,如果它们甚至听不到自己发出的声音,岂不荒谬。
6.By direct observations and many experiments,biologists have discovered that practically all animals have some sense of hearing or vibration.Earthworms feel vibrations in the soil,fish can be trained to respond to certain tones,male mosquitoes are attracted by the sound of the female,and frogs will respond to a tape recording of their own voices. 6.通过直接观察和许多试验,生物学家已经发现,实际上所有的动物都具有某种听觉或振动感。蚯蚓在土壤里能感觉震动,鱼类可以训练的对特定的音调有反应,雄性蚊子可以被雌性蚊子的声音所吸引,青蛙对它们自己的声音的录音有所反应。
7.The inner ear is composed of delicate membranes which bear dense patches of specialized cells called maculae,Each of these collections of cells can carry a message to the brain.What message is carried by a macula depends upon how it is affected.The message which is carried is not,however,always connected with the hearing sense.For instance,a certain kind of tadpole can tell the depth of the water it is swimming in by the pitch of a tone which is produced by its own lungs.
7.内耳由脆弱的薄膜构成,它承载着密集的由被称作MACULAE的特殊细胞构成的片。每个这样的细胞群都能够把信息传递给大脑,而MACULAE承载怎样的信息依赖于它是怎样受影响的。但是被承载的信息并不总是与听觉相连。举个例子,有一种蝌蚪能感知它所游泳之处水的深度,它是通过某种自己肺部产生的声音的音调来判定的。
8.In the human and all other mammals,the macula has developed into an organ which can easily be seen.This organ is called the cochlea.This spiral shaped organ contains the macula itself and it is called organ of Corti after its discoverer.If you have ever seen a snail shell,you know how a cochlea looks.
8.对于人类和其他所有哺乳类动物来说,MACULAE已经进化成为一种很容易看见的器官,这种器官称作“耳蜗”。这一螺旋形的器官包括了MACULAE本身,以及后来被其发现者称为“CORTI”的器官。如果你看到过蜗牛的壳,你就知道耳蜗的形象。
9.when sound waves enter the cochlea,which is really a tube coiled around,they set a membrane into a back and forth motion and cause a new wave.This is something like the way in which high and low sounds are produced by a flute or whistle.The high sounds are produced when the air is prevented by the holes from going through,while the low sounds are produced by allowing more of the air to pass.All this what produces the differences between high and low sounds.The loudness of a sound is evidenty produced by how much the membrane is cause to move.
9.当声波进入耳蜗这条盘旋的管道,它令薄膜前后移动并且产生新的波动。这种方式类似于长笛或是哨子所产生的高低音。当洞穴被阻挡导致空气不能通过通道时就产生高音,而有更多空气通过通道时则产生低音。这些造成了高音和低音的不同。而声音的大小则明显的决定于耳膜运动。
10.Whether or not hearing is really produced in all animals by the effect of pressure is not definitely known by scientists as yet.We do know,however,that nature has set up some very delicate hearing mechanisms for its creatures.Scientists must explore much further for more knowledge about how animals use their ears.
10.对于所有的动物来说,听觉是否真的因为气压的影响而产生,至今科学家们仍然没有明确的了解。但是我们知道,自然界已经为它的生物们建立了一些非常精细的听觉机制。科学家们必须进行更加深入地探讨才能够对动物如何应用
它们的耳朵获得更多的知识。

11.A World without Oil(参考译文:假如世界没有石油)
1.Have you ever stopped to think how your life would change if the world ran out of oil? Take a look at your day.The roof of your home is probably made waterproof by an oil product,bitumen.The same product is used for the road surface outside your home.Before you leave to go to work or school,just examine your surroundings.Is the room warmer than the cold air outside?Oil,or electricity from oil-fed generators may be keeping you comfortably warm.If you are comfortably cool in a tropical climate,your air conditioning unit may also depend on oil-fed generators.
1.你曾想过没有,如果世界上用尽了石油,你的生活会发生什么样变化呢?请看一看你的日常生活。你家的屋顶可能是用一种叫沥青的石油产品做成防水的。沥青同样可用来铺你家外面的路面。在你离家去上班或上学之前,请观察一下你周围的环境。房间里会比外面冷空气暖和吗?这是石油或由燃油发电机发出来的电使你感到舒适温暖。如果你在炎热的气候里感到舒适凉爽,那么你家的空调器可能也是靠燃油发电机工作的。
2.In the kitchen and the bathroom you will probably see some plastic fittings such as tiles and working surfaces;polystyrene cups;curtains made from synthetic materials;disinfectants and detergents.All owe their origin to the oil known as petroleum(Latin/Greek ‘petra’,rock,and Latin ‘oleum’,oil),found deep in the earth.Look inside the medicine cupboard for more petroleum products,medical paraffin and petroleum jelly.Cosmetics such as face creams,lipsticks and hair preparations are often based on petroleum.
2.在厨房和浴室里你可能看到一些塑料器具,如塑料地板和塑料操作台面、聚苯乙烯杯子、合成材料的浴帘、消毒剂和去污剂。所有这些都是来自称为“Petroleum”的石油。“Petroleum”(石油)是(由拉丁或希腊文petro(岩石)和拉丁文oleum(油)组成),深埋在地下。向药厨里看看,你可以找到更多的石油产品,如药用石蜡和凡士林。化妆品如雪花膏、唇膏、洗发剂等,常用石油作为基本原料。
3.When you’re out,notice the fields and gardens.Fertilizers and insecticides made from petroleum can improve crop production.Recently protein feeds for animals have been developed by growing yeast in a petroleum based stock.As you head for your bus,train or car,all of which use petroleum products in the form of fuel to move them and lubricants to keep them in working order,take a look in the mirror.What are you wearing today? A polyester shirt or dress,nylon socks or stockings,and acrylic sweater-a raincoat of PVC(polyvinyl chloride)? All of these are based on petroleum products.
3.当外出时你会看到农田和花园。化肥和杀虫剂是由石油制取的,可以使农作物增产。最近已经研制出一种动物食用的蛋白质饲料,它是用石油作为基本原料加上酵母而制成的。公共汽车、货车或小轿车,都是靠石油产品做燃料开动的,用润滑油保持这些车辆完好。当你去乘车之前要照镜子。看看今天穿什么衣服好?是化纤服装(衬衫还是外套),是尼龙袜(短袜还是长袜),晴纶毛衣还是塑料雨衣?而所有这些都是用石油产品作原料的。
4.Scientists predict that the world’s known oil resources will run out early in the next century.But long before then the world will have to decide on its priorities.Can we afford to use so much of our limited petroleum supplies for private motoring? Should airlines compete on similar routes allowing planes to fly long distances with empty passenger seats?What alternative energy resources can be developed?
4.科学家预言世界上已探明的石油资源将在下个世纪初用尽。但远在那时候以前,世界就必须确定石油是优先考虑控制使用的物资。石油储量既然有限,我们还能把那么多的石油用于私人汽车吗?难道航空公司还应该为了在类似的航线上竞争而允许他们的客机有空座的长途飞行吗?能开发出什么样的替代能源呢?
5.There is an old English saying,Necessity is the mother of invention, which means that when you are faced with a need you will discover some way of fulfilling it.Already scientists are proposing some fascinating solutions.There is one suggestion that the wheeled traffic and the footsteps of crowds walking the streets in major cities could generate energy.One company has presented and idea in which metal strips inserted in pavements and roads operate fly wheels by means of a piston action using hydraulic fluid.They say the human and wheeled traffic in a busy city center could provide enough energy to light the streets of an entire town or power the heating system for a hospital or school.Some people are developing sophisticated versions of the windmill.Engines can run on alcohol,so surplus sugar cane could be used to product energy.An air ship powered by energy from the sun has been suggested.Such sun ship would have a large enough surface area to carry the enormous number of solar cells necessary to move any appreciable load.Such sun ship might travel at over one hundred kilometers an hour.In such circumstances,of course,the tropical parts of the world would have a head start in the race to find new energy sources.
5.英国有一句古话“需要是发明之母”。这意味着当你面对一种需要时,你将发现一种方法满足它。科学家们已经在提出一些迷人的解决方案。有一个建议提出,在大城市街道上,拥挤的人群走的脚步和路面上往来行使的车辆可以用来
生产能量。一个公司提出这样想法:嵌在人行道和路面上的金属条用液压活塞的作用使飞轮转动。他们说,在翻花大城市的中心,人群和过往车辆可提供足够的能力为整个城镇的街道照明或者为一个医院或者学校提供供暖系统的动力。某些人正在研制高级的风车技术。发动机可用乙醇作燃料开动,因此,过剩的甘蔗可用来产生能量。还有人建议用太阳能作动力来驱使飞艇。这种“太阳能飞艇”必须要很大的面积以携带大量的太阳能电池,这样才有可能运载可观的载荷。这种“太阳能飞艇”也许每小时能航行100公里。当然倘若这样,世界的热带地区在寻找新能源的竞赛中将会领先一步。
12.The moon-Riddle from the Past(参考译文:月球—来自远古之谜)
1.Spacecraft from the United States and from Russia have been to the moon,and men have walked upon its surface.Rock and soil samples and information of many other kinds have become available in recent years.Yet with all we know about the moon,there is even more that we don’t know.
1.美国和俄国的宇宙飞船都已经到达过月球,而且人类也在它的表面上行走过。月球上的岩石和土壤的样本,以及许多其它类型的数据,近些年来已经为人们所知所用了。然而除了我们所知道的关于月球的那些外,还有更多是我们不知道的。
2.Following the end of the Apollo space program,the National Geographic Society published an excellent set of articles about the moon.Here,in shorter form,are some questions and answers from one of these articles.For the full story,see the September,1973,issue of National Geographic. 2.在阿波罗太空计划结束后,国家地理协会出版一组有关月球的极好文章。这里,以简短的问答形式,选取了这些文章的精华。完整的内容,请见1973年九月发行的《国家地理》。
Were scientists right about what the moon would be like?
3.Many were,of course,but many were mistaken.One said there was no lava on the moon,Another said that the moon material would explode as soon as an astronaut’s boot touched it.One said there would certainly be water on the moon.Many felt there was a chance that the astronauts could bring back to earth some strange infection.These ideas are now known to be incorrect,and no doubt we are still wrong about many other things,also.
科学家关于“月球外貌”的描述是正确的吗?
3.大多数是正确的,当然,也有相当部分是错误的。一个说法是月球上没有熔岩。另外一个说法是宇航员的靴子一旦碰上月球物质就会爆炸。有人说月球确实存在水。许多人还认为宇航员有可能把某些奇怪的传染病菌带回地球。这些说法现在被证明都是不正确的,无疑,我们关于月球的许多其它的看法是错误的。
Is the moon like the earth?
4.Yes and no.It is more like it than many scientists thought before Apollo.Like the earth,the moon is in layers,with a crust on the outside and a deep mantle below.It may also have a core,as the earth does.However,the crust is almost four times thicker than the earth’s crust.We do not know much yet about the moon’s mantle,that section of superheated rock which goes down hundreds of miles below the crust.We think-but we are not sure-that the moon has a center core which includes molten rock,as the earth does.
月球像地球吗?
4.答案是,对也不对。月球比科学家在阿波罗计划之前想象的还要像地球。如同地球一样,月球上有地层,表面是一层地壳,其下是很深的地幔。月球也可能如同地球一样有一个地核。然而,月球地壳几乎是地球地壳厚度的四倍。我们对月球地幔所知不多,那些过热的岩石在外壳几百英里以下。我们预料,但是我们不能确定,月球有一个有熔岩构成的地核,如同地球。
5.In other ways,of course,the moon is very different.There is no life,and there is no water.The makeup of its atmosphere is very different;the earth creatures cannot breathe in it.
5.在其它方面,当然,月球非常不同。它没有生命,没有水。它大气的构成也非常不同,地球生物在那里不能呼吸。 Of what is the moon made?
6.Definitely not green cheese.It has the same chemical elements as have the earth and the rest of the solar system but in very different amounts-more of some,less of others.Carbon,which is a very important part of living things on the earth,is rare on the moon.
月球是由什么构成的?
6.很明显不是绿色奶酪。月球有如同地球和其余太阳系行星一样的化学元素,但是其比率非常不同,某些多一点,其它少一些。碳是地球上生物的一个非常重要组成部分,在月球上非常稀少。
Is the moon hot or cold?
7.Most scientists agree that some of the moon was hot for at least a time.Rocks from the moon show that they were once melted.Right now there seems to be heat someplace inside the moon,possibly a great deal of it,On the surface,however,there is
no sign of heat-no volcano,for example.The surface itself ranges from heat of 230。F(本人注: 。应为上标,下同) to cold of minus 290。F,depending upon where the sun is.
月球是酷热的还是寒冷的?
7.大多数科学家认为月球的一部分至少在一个时期是热的。来自月球的岩石表明它们曾经被融化。现在,似乎在月球内部的某些地方仍处于高温,也可能它是很大的一片地方,然而在表面上,没有高温的特征,例如没有火山。月球表面温度范围从华氏正230度到华氏负290度,取决于太阳在什么地方。
Where did the moon come from?
8.We don’t know.The three main theories(ideas)are(1)that the moon was born from the earth,(2)that the earth and the moon were born together at the same time from the same cloud of gas and dust,and (3)that the moon was born someplace else in the solar system and then captured by th earth’s gravity.So far,none of these theories has been proved to be either right or wrong.Professor George W.Wetherill of the University of California in Los Angeles says that he would give the first two theories each a 10 percent chance and the third theory a 20 percent chance.The other 60 percent he would give to things we haven’t thought of yet.
月球来自哪里呢?
8.我们不知道。主要存在着三个理论:(1)月球产生自地球,(2)地球和月球在同一时间从同一气云和尘埃里同时产生,
(3)月球是产生在太阳系的其它某个地方,而后被地球的地心引力所捕获。到现在为止,这些理论中没有任何一个已经被证明正确或错误。洛杉机加州大学的乔治教授说,他认为前两个理论有百分之十的正确性,第三个理论有百分之二十的正确性,另外的百分之六十他将给“至今我们都还没想到的事物”。
9.In spite of all we have learned from space flights,the moon is still a riddle from the distant past-and will be for a long time to come.Although we know much more now,we find that,somehow,for every answer new questions spring up. 9.尽管我们已经从空间飞行中了解了一些,月球仍然是来自遥远过去的一个谜,而且仍将会在未来很长一段时间如此。尽管我们现在比过去知道的更多,但是我们也发现,不知何故,每个新答案都会引发出更多的新问题。
13.A Handful of History(参考译文:扑克—手中的历史) 1.The next time you do a card trick-remember this.You’re playing with history.The playing cards we use today are much like those used for hundreds of years.The most interesting things are the suits and face cards.A suit of a playing card is not a thing to be worn.It means Hearts,Spades,Diamonds or Clubs.The figures are placed on each card with the number or value of the card.The face cards are the Jacks,Queens,Kings,and,of course,the Jokers.
1.当你下一次玩扑克的时候,要记住这些。你正在与历史进行游戏。今天我们用的扑克,几乎与数百年前的扑克相差无几。最有意思的东西是扑克里的“套”和“脸牌”。扑克中的“套”不是什么可以穿的东西。它意味着红心、黑桃、红方块、或者梅花。牌面的数标志着牌的顺序或价值。带脸的牌是杰克、皇后、国王、当然还有鬼。
2.What do you think the suits stand for? Let’s take the Hearts first.When you say that an athlete has a lot of heart,what do you mean?You mean that he is brave.So,you see,the King of Hearts ia a brave king.
2.你认为“套”代表什么意思?让我们先看红心。当你说一个运动员有很多心,你到底想表达什么意思?你的意思是他很勇敢。因此,你看,红心国王是勇敢之王。
3.Look at the design of the Spade on a card.The word spade comes from the Italian word which means sword.With a little imagination,you can see the handle and the blade.Of course,the blade has been made much shorter on the card. 3.看看牌面上黑桃的设计。英语“SPADE”这个字来自意大利语,意思是刀剑。只要有一点想象力,你就能看到柄和刀刃。当然,牌面的刀刃被做的非常短。
4.The diamonds and Club designs also have interesting stories.The Diamond design is one that you probably know already.It stands for the expensive gems that you and I have seen in jewelry stores.At first it stood for the rich traders who found and sold such gems.The Club looks a little like a three-leaf clover design.Its shape came from a French design with tree leaves.It has the lowest rank of the suits. 4.红方块和梅花的设计同样含有很有意思的故事。关于钻石的图案是一个你可能已经知道的东西。它代表你和我都曾在首饰店看见过的珍贵的珍宝。首先它代表了制做和出卖这样的珍宝的富有的商人。梅花看上去有点像三叶草的图案。它的形状来自一个法国的三片树叶的图案。它在套牌里排序最低。
5.Now you see how some suits of playing cards have more value or power than others.The face cards are ususlly powerful in any card game.The King is one of the strongest.There are four different Kings,and each one stands for a real person.The King of Hearts first meant Charlemagne.He lived about 800 years after the birth of Christ.He was one of the most powerful kings in Europe after Julius Caesar of Rome.Julius Caesar,by the way,is the King of Diamonds.
5.现在你看到了为什么一套牌的价值或力量大于另外一套牌。在任何一个扑克游戏里带脸的牌往往威力更大。国王(K)是最强的一个。这里有四个不同的国王,每一个代表着一个真实的人。首先红心国王代表查理曼大帝,他生活在耶稣
诞生后800年后。他是罗马朱利叶斯·恺撒之后欧洲最强大的国王。顺便说一下,朱利叶斯·恺撒是红方块国王。
6.We must go furter back in history to find out the names of the two other kings.The young Alexander the Great of Macedonia is the King of Clubs and King David is the King of Spades.David is the person who killed the giant Goliath.When someone talks about a David and Goliath,he means that a smaller,or weaker,person is trying to fight a very large and strong enemy.David beat Goliath and became a king.He probably never thought that he would have a place in playing cards. 6.我们要想找到其它两个国王的名字,必须退回到更久远的历史里去。梅花国王是大马其顿王国年轻的亚历山大,国王大卫是方片国王。大卫是杀死巨人歌利亚的人。当某个人谈到大卫和歌利亚,他的意思是一个小个的人,或弱者正在打败一个非常高大和强壮的敌人。大卫战胜了歌利亚成为国王。他可能从来没有想到他会在扑克牌里有一个位置。
7.We must go back to the Bible and the times of David again to find two of our queens.Rachel was a famous woman in the Bible.She is the Queen of Diamonds.
7.我们必须再次回到圣经(BIBLE)和大卫王的时代去找两个王后。拉结是圣经中的著名女人。她是红方块王后。
8.Remember that the heart stands for bravery.A very brave woman is the Queen of Hearts.That was Judith,who killed an enemy general. 8.应该还记得心代表勇敢。一个非常勇敢的女人是红心王后。红心王后是朱迪丝,她杀死了敌人的一个将军。
9.When Alexander the Great was a general,one of the important woman goddesses was Athena.She stood for wisdom.Athena is the Queen of Spades.
9.当伟大的亚利桑德拉还是将军时,雅典娜是一个重要的女神。她代表智慧。雅典娜是黑桃皇后。
10.Queen Elizabeth I of England is thought to be the Queen of Clubs,She ruled England when America was mostly a wilderness. 10.英国的伊利沙白一世女王一般认为是梅花王后。在她统治英国的时代,美国几乎还是一片荒野。
11.The Jacks are sometimes called Knaves.A Knave is usually a person who gets into trouble.But the playing cards stand for famous knights in history.These men made themselves famous for their courage and bravery,but they were not kings. 11.杰克牌有时被称为无赖。一个无赖往往意味着他是一个带来麻烦的人。但是在扑克游戏中杰克代表历史上有名的爵士。这些人以他们的胆量和勇敢成名,但是他们不是国王。
12.The Joker of the card deck is the one that doesn’t always fit.He is sometimes used as an extra card.He sometimes becomes more powerful than any other card.He does not stand for anyone person like some of the other cards.But I think that you can see what his name means. 12.鬼牌是一张牌脸与其价值不相适应的牌。它常常用做一张特别的牌。有时它被用做比任何牌更有权利的牌。它不像其它牌脸代表着什么人。但是,我认为你能看出它的名字的含义。
13.So,you see that you can hold some history in your hands.History from King David to Queen Elizabeth is all on the front of playing cards. 13.所以,你看,你用你的手握住了一些历史,从大卫王到伊利沙白女王全都在扑克的正面。
17.The Magic of Energy(参考译文:能的魔力)
1.We talk about energy all the time-Zilch,the energy food, energy crisis, and so on.If asked to define it,however,we’d probably respond with something like Well,it’s-uh-well,you know-electricity.
1.我们时时刻刻讨论着能:“能量食物”,“能源危机”,等等。如果我们去给能下个定义,答案很可能是一些模棱两可的话:“哦,能量是,嗯,你知道,电。”
2.True;electricity is one kind of energy.However,energy comes in many forms.You cannot see or smell or taste energy,but it’s always there,and one of the most fascinating things about it is its ability to change from one form to another-like magic.This principle of change is what keeps everything-and everyone-going in this world of ours. 2.确实,电是能量中的一种。但是,能量可以来自多种形式。你看不见、闻不到、也品尝不了能,但是,它始终存在着,关于能量,最吸引人的就是,它具有从一种形式转换成另外一种形式的能力,简直如同魔术。这些转化的原理是维持我们这个世界每一样事物、每一个人的运动。 Heat Energy 热能
3.When a fuel unites with oxygen,we say the fuel burns; what is really happening is that chemical energy(fuel and oxygen) is changing to heat energy.When the fuel(food) we eat unites with the oxygen we breathe,we then have heat energy to run our bodies. 3.当燃料与氧气结合,我们就说燃料开始燃烧了,实际发生的是化学能(燃料与氧气)转化成热能。当燃料(我们吃的食物)与我们呼吸的氧气结合,我们获得我们身体运动所需的热能。
4.When you pop a frozen waffle into the toaster,electrical turns into heat energy. 4.当你取出一块冷冻饼放进烤面包器时,电能转化成了热能。
5.In the internal-combustion engine of a car,an electric spark explodes gasses in the cylinder;the heat energy moves the pistons,becoming mechanical energy to move the car. 5.在汽车的内燃机引擎里,电火花引爆气缸里的燃料气体,然后热能推进活塞,成为机械能推动汽车行驶。
6.In a steam engine,the chemical energy of fuel is changed to heat energy;the heated water,now steam,forces the pistons to move.In a steam turbine,the steam pushes against blades.In both cases,mechanical energy results. 6.在蒸汽机里,燃料里的化
学能转化成热能,加热水,成为水蒸汽,推动活塞运动。在燃气轮机里,水蒸汽推动的是叶片。在这两种情况中,都是机械能起的作用。
7.This changing from one form of energy to another can continue almost indefinitely.If,for instance,the steam engine or turbine is connected to a generator,the mechanical energy can become electrical energy,which can become heat energy(for the electric stove),mechanical energy(for the washer),etc.
7.能量从一种形式转化为另一种形式的变化几乎能够平稳连续进行。比如说,如果蒸汽机或者蒸汽轮机和一个发电机联接起来,那么机械能量就可以转化成电能,然后转化成热能(比如电炉)、机械能(如洗衣机)等等。
8.Thus,energy readily changes back and forth from one form to another.What starts out as one form of energy may be a totally different form when it reaches its final use. 8.因此,能量可以轻易地从一种形式到另一种形式来回转变。从最初的能量形式到最后的使用形式,能的形态可能已经完全改变了。
Radiant Energy 辐射能 9.Radiant energy is also called light energy.Our most important source of radiant energy is ,of course,the sun.Without it there would be no life,for plant life depends upon radiant energy-and we depend upon plant life. 9.辐射能也称作光能。当然,我们人类最重要的光能的来源就是太阳。没有太阳,就没有生命,植物的生命依赖辐射能,而我们依赖植物的生命。
10.Other forms of radiant energy familiar to us are radio waves,infrared rays,ultra-violet rays,X rays,and gamma rays.
10.我们熟悉的另外一些形式的辐射能是电磁波,红外线、紫外线、X射线和伽玛射线。 Mechanical Energy
机械能
11.In simplest terms,this is the energy of a moving object.Your heartbeat,the pushing of a lawn mower,a baseball speeding through the air,water falling onto a waterwheel,the prying up of a rock with a crowbar-all are mechanical energy,which,of course,was another form of energy earlier. 11.用最简单的术语来描述,机械能就是移动着的物体拥有的能量。你的心脏跳动、推进割草机、棒球在空中高速飞过、水落入水轮机、用撬杠撬开石头等等,所有这些都是机械能,当然,在转化之前它是另一种能量形式。 Electrical Energy 电能
12.Eletrical energy usually has to be changed to another form before it actually does what we want it to do.In the toaster,it changes to heat;in a tiny wrist watch or a subway train or a 75,000 horse-power industrial motor,it changes to mechanical energy.In an industrial process called electrolysis,it changes to chemical energy. 12.通常情况下,电能必须先转化为另一种形式的能,才能为我们所用。对烤面包机来说,电能转化成热能,在一个小小的手表里或者地铁列车里或者一台75000马力的工业电动机里,电能转化成机械能。在所谓的电解工业的过程中,它转化成化学能。
Chemical Energy 化学能
13.Various fuels such as coal,gas,oil and food are common examples of chemical energy.These fuels give off heat when they burn.The process is called combustion or oxidation,and the heat itself is a form of energy.Man uses the energy from some kind of fuel for everything from flying to the moon to thinking about it.
13.最常见的化学能包括煤、天然气、石油、和食物等各种各样的燃料。当这些燃料燃烧时释放出热能。这个过程我们称之为燃烧或者氧化反应,同时热本身也是能量的一种形式。人们从不同燃料中得到的能量,并用这些能量做任何事情,大到飞上月球,小到头脑思考。
14.A special kind of chemical energy is nuclear energy,sometimes called atomic energy.These names come from the fact that the source of energy the nucleus,or core,of the atom,Nuclear fuels much as plutonium and uranium give off heat energy when fission(the splitting of atoms in these fuels) occurs.Already we have seen tremendous advances in the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes,and many people see nuclear energy as the future answer to almost all of our energy need.
14.核能是一种特殊的化学能,有时候我们称之为原子能。这个名称来自于原子能来源于核、或者原子核这样的事实。当核燃料,例如钋(应该为钚)和铀,发生核裂变时释放出热能(这些燃料中原子发生分裂)。我们已经看到和平利用核能所带来的巨大好处,并且很多人认为核能可以看作解决未来人类能源需求问题的答案。
15.Energy-the kind of magic we can’t live without.
能,是与人类生存息息相关的一种魔力。

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