2011年职称英语理工阅读理解50篇word版

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摘要

第一篇 Ford Abandons Electric Vehicles
The Ford motor company‘s abandonment of electric cars effectively signals the end of the road for the technology,analysts say.
General Motors。and Honda‘ceased production of battery.powered cars in 1 999, to focus on fuel cell and hybrid electric gasoline engines, which are more attractive to the consumer.Ford has now announced it will do the same. Three years ago.the company introduced the Think City two—seater car and a golf cart called the THINK, or Think Neighbor.It hoped to sell 5,000 cars each year and 10,000 carts.But a lack of demand means only about l,000 of the cars have been produced,and less than 1。700 carts have been sold so far in 2002. ―The bottom line is we don‘t believe that this is the future of environment transport for the mass market.‖Tim Holmes of Ford Europe said on Friday.―We feel we have given electric our best shot‖
The Think City has a range of only about 53 miles and up to a six-hour battery recharge time.General Motors‘EVI electric vehicle also had a limited range。of about 100 miles.
The very expensive batteries also mean electric cars cost much more than petrol-powered alternatives.An electric Toyot~RAV4 EV vehicle costs over$42,000 in the US, compared with just $17,000 for the petrol version.Toyota and Nissan…are now the only major automanufacturers to produce electric vehicles.
―There is a feeling that battery electric has been given its chance.Ford now has to move on with its hybrid program―,and that is what we will be judging them on,‖Roger Higman,a senior transport campaigner at UK Friends of the Earth,told the Environment News Service.
Hybrid cars introduced by Toyota and Honda in the past few years have sold well.Hybrid engines Offer Greater mileage than petrol—only engines , and the batteries recharge themselves. Ford says it thinks such vehicles will help it meet planned new guidelines ―on vehicle emissions‖ in the U.S.
However, it is not yet clear exactly what those guidelines will permit.In June,General Motors and Daimler Chrysler won a court injunction,delaying by two years Californian legislation requiring car—makers to offer 100,000 zero-emission and other low—emission vehicles in the state by 2003.Car manufacturers hope the legislation will be rewritten to allow for more low–emission,rather than zero—emission,vehicles.1. What have the Ford motor company.General Motor‘s and Honda done concerning electric cars?
A)They have started to produce electric cars.B)They have done extensive research on electric Cars
C They have given up producing electric cars.D)They have produced thousands of electric Cars
2. According to Tim Holmes of Ford Europe,battery-powered cars
A)will be the main transportation vehicles in the future
B) will not be the main transportation vehicles in the future.
C)will be good to the environment in the future
D)will replace petrol—powered vehicles in the future.
3. Which auto manufacturers are still producing electric vehicles?
A)Toyota and Nissan
B)General Motor‘s and Honda
C)Ford and Toyota
D)Honda and Toyota
4.According to the eighth paragraph,hybrid cars
A)offer fewer mileage than petrol driven cars
B)run faster than petrol driven cars
C)run more miles than petrol driven cars
D)offer more batteries than petrol driven cars
5.Which of the following is true about the hope of car manufacturers according to the last paragraph?
A)Low-emission cars should be banned.
B)Only zero-emission cars are allowed to run on motorways.
C)The legislation will encourage car makers to produce more electric cars.
D)The legislation will allow more 10w.emission to be produced
2011年新增第二篇
World Crude Oil Production May Peak
a Decade Earlier Than Some Predict
In a finding that may speed efforts to conserve oil, scientists in Kuwait predict that world conventional crude oil production will peak in 2014. This prediction is almost a decade earlier than some other predictions.Their study is in ACS’ Energy&Fuels.
Ibrahim Nashawi and colleagues point out that rapid growth in global oil consumption has sparked a growing interest in predicting peak oil.Peak oil is the point where oil production reaches a maximum and then declines. Scientists have developed several models to forecast this point, and some put the date at 2020 or later. One of the most famous forecast models is called the Hubbert model. It assumes that global oil production will follow a bell shaped curve. A related concept is that of Peak Oil. The term Peal Oil indicates the moment in which world wide production Will peak, afterwards to start on irreversible decline.
The Hubbert model accurately predicted that oil production would peak in the United States in 1970. The model has since gained in popularity and has been used to forecast oil production worldwide.
However, recent studies show that the model is insufficient to account for more complex oil production cycles of some countries.Those cycles can be heavily influenced by technology changes, politics, and other factors, the scientists say.
The new study describes development of a new version of the Hubbert model that provides a more realistic and accurate oil production forecast.Using the new model, the scientists evaluated the oil production trends of 47 major oil-producing countries, which supply most of the world’s conventional crude oil. They estimated that worldwide conventional crude oil production will peak in 2014, years earlier than anticipated. The scientists also showed that the world’s oil reserves are
being reduced at a rate of 2.1 percent a year. The new model could help inform energy-related decisions and public policy debate, they suggest.
词汇:
Conserve v. 保护,保存
crude oil原油
spark v.闪耀;激发;鼓舞
curve n.曲线
irreversible adj.不可逆的,不可改变的
insufficient adj.充分的,不足的
注释:
1.ACS’ Energy & Fuels:ACS是American Chemical Society(美国化学学会)的缩写。该学会成立于l876年,现已成为世界最大的科技协会。多年来,ACS一直致力于为全球化学研究机构、企业及个人提供高品质的文献资讯及服务。ACS出版的期刊有34种,这些期刊在化学领域中是被引用次数最多的化学期刊,Energy&Fuels即是其中一本。
2.the Hubbert model:赫伯特模型是美国地质学家M.King Hubbert于1956年创建的,这是一个随时间增7654231
长的模型,Hubbert将其引入油气田开发,经推导使其成为一个可以预测油气田累积产量、瞬时产量、年产量和可采储量等多项开发指标的多功能预测模型。
3.a bell shaped curve:钟形曲线
4.that of peak oil:that指代concept。
5.account for:说明,解释
6.conventional crude oil:常规原油
7.oil reserves:石油储量。通常使用复数形式reserves。
练习:
1.Which of the following is closest in meaning to the word sparked appearing in paragraph 2?
A.flashed
B.stimulated
C.changed
D.ended
2.The term a bell shaped curve appearing in paragraph 2 indicates that global oil production will
A.take the shape of a flat curve.
B.keep growing.
C.keep declining.
D.start to decline after global oil production peaks.
3.Which of the following is NOT true of the Hubbert model?
A.It successfully predicted that oil production peaked in the U.S.in l 970.
B.It has been used to predict oil production in many countries.
C.It is insufficient to explain oil production cycles in some countries.
D.It provides a very realistic and accurate oil production.
4.What is the major achievement of the new study mentioned in the last paragraph?
A.It predicts global oil production will peak in 2014.
B.It predicts oil production will decline in 47 countries.
C.It confirms further the effectiveness of the Hubbert model.
D.It discovers a new trend of Worldwide oil production.
5.Who develop the new version of the Hubbert model?
A.American scientists.
B.Kuwaiti scientists.
C.British scientists.
D.Scientists of 47 major oil-producing countries.
答案与题解:
1.B spark一词做及物动词使用时有发动、激发的意思,在此意为stimulated,即引发,这个句子的意思是:全球石油消费的快速增长已引发了对石油峰值预测的兴趣。
2.D此句接下来的句子中所提到的a related concept即是与a bell shaped curve相关的概念,也就是说,接下来的这个句子对a bell shaped curve做了解释,即世界石油生产达到最大峰值后将下降。
3.D 文章的第三段告诉我们,Hubbert预测模型精确地预测到美国石油生产于1970年将达到峰值。这一模型自受到公认后,已用于预测世界石油生产。第四段说,这一模型对于某些国家更加复杂的石油生产周期而言,其计算尚不充分。这些生产周期受到技术的改变、政策和其他因素的很大影响。所以,A、B和C都是对Hubbert模型的正确说明。
4.A选项8、C和D所述内容均未在文章中提到。最后一段告诉我们,科学家使用新的模型评估了47个主要的
产油国家的石油生产趋势,并预计全球常规原油生产到2014年将达最高峰值。所以,A是答案。
5.B 短文第一段的第一个句子提供了答案。
第3篇 Citizen Scientists
Understanding how nature responds to climate change will require monitoring key life cycle1 events-flowering, the appearance of leaves, the first frog calls of the spring – all around the world. But ecologists can’t be everywhere so they’re turning to non-scientists, sometimes called citizen scientists, for help.
Climate scientists are not present everywhere. Because there are so many places in the world and not enough scientists to observe all of them, they’re asking for your help in observing signs of climate change across the world. The citizen scientist movement encourages ordinary people to observe a very specific research interest – birds, trees, flowers budding, etc. – and send their observations to a giant database to be observed by professional scientists. This helps a small number of scientists track a large amount of data that they would never be able to gather on their own. Much like citizen journalists helping large publications cover a hyper-local beat2, citizen scientists are ready for the conditions where they live. All that’s needed to become one is a few minutes each day or each week to gather data and send it3 in.
A group of scientists and educators launched an organization last year called the National Pheonology4 Network. Phenology is what scientists call the study of the timing of events in nature.
One of the group’s first efforts relies on scientists and non-scientists alike to collect data about plant flowering and leafing every year. The program, called Project BudBurst, collects life cycle data on a variety of common plants from across the United States. People participating in the project – which is open to everyone – record their observations on the Project BudBurst website.
People don’t have to be plant experts -they just have to look around and see what’s in their neighborhood, says Jennifer Schwartz, an education consultant with the project. As we collect this data, we’ll be able to make an estimate of how plants and eommunities5 of plants and animals will respond as the climate changes.
词汇:
Frog n. 蛙 Ecologist n.生态学家 Phenology n.物候学 Bud v.发芽,萌芽;n.芽,花蕾
Neighbor(u)rhood n.近邻;邻近地区 Database n.数据库
Professional adj.专业的,职业的;n.职业选手,专业人员
注释:
1. life cycle:生命周期,即生物发展过程的系列变化。
2. hyper-local beat: beat 在此做名词用,意思是:某类新闻报道,如,a business beat; 商业专题报道。这是近年来出现的新词。Hyper-local beat 即 hyper-local news,指 的是被传统新闻报道方式所忽略的小型社区或居民居住区里发生的相关信息报道。在美 国由此而诞生了 hyper-local news website,专门对主流媒体所没有覆盖的地区所发生 的事件进行报道,其形式多以网民,即短文中所提及的 citizen journalists,上传所 在社区发生的事件报道、照片或视频为主。这是网络时代产生的又一新生事物。
3. data 是复数形式,但常用做单数,所以这里的代词是 it。另参见 最后 一段―As we collect this data, …‖。这里的 data 也用作单数。
4. phenology:物候学或生物气候学,是气候学和生态学的边缘学科,主要研究气候环境 对生物的影响。
5. communities:生态学词汇:生物群落,记载比较相似的环境条件下在特定自然区域或 环境中生活和互相影响的一群植物和动物。
练习:
1. Ecologists turn to non-scientist citizens for help because they need them
A) to provide their personal life cycles. B) to observe the life cycle of plants.
C) to collect data of the life cycle of living things. D) to teach children knowledge about climate change.
2. What are citizen scientists asked to do?
A) To develop a specific research interest and become professional scientists.
B) To send their research observations to a professional database.
C) To increase their knowledge about climate change.
D) To keep a record of their research observations.
3. In All that’s needed to become one… (paragraph 2) , what does the word one stands for?
A) a citizen journalist. B) a citizen scientist. C) a scientist. D) a citizen.
4. What is NOT true of Project BudBurst?
A) Only experts can participate in it. B) Everybody can participate in it.
C) It collects life cycle data on a variety of common plants. D) It has its own website.
5. What is the final purpose of Project BudBurst?
A) To study when plants will have their first buds.
B) To find out the types of plants in the neighborhood.
C) To collect life cycle data on a variety of common plants from across the
United States.
D) To investigate how plants and animals will respond as the climate changes.
答案与题解:
1. C第一段和第二段的第一句告诉我们,要在世界范围内观察气候对大自然中生物生命周 期的影响,数量有限的科学家不可能足迹遍及天下,为此科学家求助于普通公民的参与 。 所以 C 是正确选择。
2. B第二段第三句中 encourage ordinary people to observe…的主语是 The citizen scientist movement,即公民参与科学观察的运动。所以 D 不是正确选择。A 和 C 不符 合文章的句意,因此也不是正确的选择。这个句子的大意是:这一运动鼓励普通公民根 据自己的兴趣爱好进行科学观察,并将观察结果送交数据库,让专门领域的科学家做进 一步的观察。B 正确表达了这个意思。
3. B one 在 这 里 是 一 个 代 词 , 其 前 置 词 是 citizen scientists , 而 不 是 citizen journalists,这里的 one 指的是 one of citizen scientists。所以 A、C 和 D 都不是 正确选择。这个句子的意思是,只要每天或每星期花上几分钟收集数据并发送出去,就 能成为一个公民科学家。
4. A 文章最后一段说,这个计划向所有人开放(open to everyone),所以应选择 A。B,C,D 所述内容都在该段中提到。
5. D C 表述的内容是 Project Budburst 所要做的工作,但其最终的目的不仅仅是收集数 据,而是研究气候变化对生物生命周期的影响。因此,D 才是正确答案。
第四篇 Motoring Technology(2007年考)
1.2 million road deaths worldwide occur each year, plus a further 50 million injuries. To reduce car crash rate, much research now is focused on safety and new fuels—though some electric vehicle and biofuel research aims at going faster.
Travelling at speed has always been risky. One cutting edge area of research in motoring safety is the use of digital in-car assistants. They can ensure you don‘t miss crucial road signs or fall asleep. The use of artificial intelligence software allows these assistants to monitor your driving and makes sure your phone or radio doesn‘t distract you at a vital moment. Most crashes result from human and not mechanical faults.
Some safety developments aim to improve your vision. Radar can spot obstacles in fog, while other technology ―sees through‖ high-sided vehicles blocking your view.
And improvements to seat belts, pedal controls and tyres are making driving smoother and safer. The colour of a car has been found to be linked with safety, as have ,less surprisingly, size and shape.
And alternatives to fossil-fuel based petrol, such as plant oils, are a hot area of research. Fuel cells based on hydrogen burn cleanly, and are the subject of a serious research effort.
But whatever is in the fuel tank, you don‘t want a thief in the driving seat and there have been many innovations,
some using satellite tracking and remote communications, to fight against car theft. These communication systems can also come into play if you crash, automatically calling for help.
Accidents cause many traffic jams, but there are more subtle interplays between vehicles that can cause jams even on a clear but busy road. Such jams can be analysed using statistical tools. Robotic drivers could be programmed to make traffic flow smoothly and will perhaps one day be everyone‘s personal chauffeur, but their latest efforts suggest that won‘t be soon.
4. 汽车技术
每年,全世界有120万起路面交通死亡事故,以及五千万起路面交通伤残事故。为降低车祸发生率,现在有很多研究将注意力放在行车安全和开发新型燃料上。而有些关于电动机车和生物燃料的研究旨在达到更快的速度。
高速驾驶一向是很危险的。一项在机动车安全前沿领域的研究是有关车内数字化辅助设施的。这些设施会确保司机们不会错过重要的路况指示牌或在开车时睡着。通过运用人工智能软件,这些辅助设施可监控行车过程并确保在关键时刻司机不会被手机或广播干扰注意力。许多车祸是由人为原因造成的而非机械故障。 一些行车安全方面的改进力图改善司机的视野。雷达可对雾中的障碍物定位,而其他的科技手段可透过阻碍你视线的高大车辆看到前方。
对安全带、刹车板控制和车胎的改进也使行车过程变得更顺畅、安全。人们发现车的颜色与安全有关,令人不会感到惊讶的是,车的大小和形状也与安全有关。
从矿物燃料中提取的汽油的替代物,例如植物油,也是研究中的一个热门区域。取材于氢气的燃料电池燃烧时无污染,并已成为一项重要研究的攻克对象。
但不管燃料箱中盛为何物,你可不想在驾驶座上坐的是一个窃贼。对此,也有很多创新来打击汽车盗窃,其中一些运用了卫星跟踪和远程通讯。当发生车祸时,这些通讯系统也可起作用,自动地呼叫帮助。 交通事故可引发许多交通堵塞。但在一畅通却繁忙的路段上,汽车间也有很多的细微互动,从而导致可能的阻塞。此类阻塞可用数据统计工具来进行分析。被编程的机器人可使交通流动更顺畅,并有朝一日有望成为每个人的私家司机。但最新成果表明这种设想并非短期内可以实现。
1. What are researchers interested in doing as the road accidents worldwide increase to a shocking rate?
A. they are developing faster electric vehicles
B. they are analyzing road deaths occurring worldwide every year.
C. they focus their research on safety and new fuels
D. they are designing fully automatic cars
2. According to the second paragraph, most road accidents happen
A. because drivers fall asleep
B. because drivers make mistakes
C. because of engine failure
D. because of speeding
3. Which of the safety developments is NOT mentioned in the passage?
A. radars that can help drivers to see obstacles in fog
B. devices that help drivers to see through big vehicles
C. improvements in seat belts, pedal controls and tyres
D. windscreens that can help drivers to improve their vision
4. What is NOT the purpose of innovations that use satellite tracking and remote communications?
A. to prevent car thieves from getting into your car
B. to call for help when one‘s car crashes
C. to call for help when the car gets jammed in the traffic
D. to track the car down when it is being stolen
5 What is true of robotic drivers?
A. it will take some time before robotic drivers can be put to practical use
B. robotic drivers are not allowed to drive on busy roads
C. robotic drivers can never replace human drivers
D. robotic drivers are too expensive to use
第五篇 Late-Night Drinking
Coffee lovers beware. Having a quick ―pick-me-up‖ cup of coffee late in the day will play havoc with your sleep. As well as being a stimulant, caffeine interrupts the flow of melatonin, the brain hormone that sends people into a sleep.
Melatonin levels normally start to rise about two hours before bedtime. Levels then peak between 2 a.m. and 4 a.m., before falling again. ―It’s the neurohormone that controls our sleep and tells our body when to sleep and when to wake, ‖ says Maurice Ohayon of the Stanford Sleep Epidemiology Research Center at Stanford University in California. But researchers in Israel have found that caffeinated coffee halves the body’s levels of this sleep hormone.
Lotan Shilo and a team at the Sapir Medical Center in Tel Aviv University found that six volunteers slept less well after a cup of caffeinated coffee than after drinking the same amount of decaf. On average, subjects slept 336 minutes per night after drinking caffeinated coffee, compared with 415 minutes after decaf. They also took half an hour to drop off4—twice as long as usual—and jigged around in bed twice as much.
In the second phase of the experiment, the researchers woke the volunteers every three hours and asked them to give a urine sample. Shilo measured concentrations of a breakdown product of melatonin. The results suggest that melatonin concentrations in caffeine drinkers were half those in decaf drinkers. In a paper accepted for publication in Sleep Medicinc, the researchers suggest that caffeine blocks production of the enzyme that drives melatonin production.
Because it can take many hours to eliminate caffeine from the body, Ohayon recommends that coffee lovers switch to decaf after lunch.
1.题目:The author mentions pick-me-up to indicate that
答案:C)coffee is a stimulant.
2.题目:Which of the following tells us how caffeine affects sleep?
答案:C)Caffeine halves the body’s levels of sleep hormone.
3.题目:What does paragraph 3 mainly discuss?
答案:A)Different effects of caffeinated coffee and decaf on sleep.
4.题目:What does the experiment mentioned in paragraph 4 prove?
答案:D)Caffeine drinkers produce less sleep hormone.
5.题目:The author of this passage probably agrees that
答案:B)We should not drink coffee after supper.
速记口诀:
深夜喝咖啡
2.咖啡因减半荷尔蒙____________________
3.两种咖啡果不同____________________
4.咖啡饮者少激素____________________
5.不喝咖啡晚饭后______________
2011年新增第六篇 Waving With Light
In the Sierra Madre mountain range of west central Mexico, the native Huichol people live much the way their ancestors did–without electricity. That’s because it’s too expensive to 12
string power lines to the remote mountain areas where they live. To help support themselves, the Huichol create beautiful artwork. They sell their art in cities hundreds of miles away from their villages. And without electricity–at home or on the road, they can only work during daylight hours. When it gets dark, they must stop whatever they’re doing.
Now, a team of scientists, designers, and architects is using new technologies to provide the Huichol with light after the sun sets.The scientists’ technique involves weaving tiny electronic crystals into fabrics that can be made into clothes, bags, or other items.
By collecting the sun’s energy during the day, these lightweight fabrics provide bright white light at night.Their inventors have named the fabrics “Portable Lights.” Portable Lights have the potential to transform the lives of people without electricity around the world, says project leader
Sheila Kennedy.
Our invention, Kennedy says, came from seeing how we could transform technology we saw every day in the United States and move it into new markets for people who didn’t have a lot of money. At the core of Portable Light technology are devices called high-brightness light-emitting diodes,or HB LEDs.These tiny lights appear in digital clocks,televisions,and streetlights.
LEDs are completely different from the light bulbs.Most of those glass bulbs belong to a type called incandescent lights.Inside,electricity heats a metal coil to about 2,200 degrees Celsius.At that temperature,bulbs give off light we can see.
Ninety percent of energy produced by incandescent lights, however, is heat——and invisible.With all that wasted energy, bulbs burn out quickly.They are also easily broken.
LEDs,on the other hand,are like tiny pieces of rock made up of molecules that are arranged in a crystal structure.When an electric current passes through an LED,the crystal structure produces light.Unlike incandescent bulbs, they Can produce light of various colors.Within an LED, the type of molecules and their particular arrangement determines what color is produced. 词汇:
Portable adj.轻便的,手提式的
light—emitting diode(LED) 发光二极管
bulb n.灯泡;球状物
incandescent adj.白灼的
coil n.线圈,卷,圈
molecule n.分子
注释:
1.Sierra Madre mountain range of west central Mexico:墨西哥中西部的马德雷山脉o Sierra;一词在西班牙语中本身就包含了“山脉”的意思,确切地说是“呈齿状起伏的山脉”,因为在西班牙语中Sierra有“锯子”的意思。
2.Huichol people:维克人。他们是居住在墨西哥中西部地区马德雷山脉的土著印地安人。该地区山路崎岖,所以西班牙人未涉足于此,墨西哥文化也没能影响维克人的土著文化。据估计,维克印地安人现仅存约一万人。
3.string power lines:架设输电线。
4.Now,a team of scientists„is usin9:a team of scientists可以视作单数,也可以视作复数。本句用作单数,所以后接的谓语动词是is。
5.At the core of:此处the core of意为the basic or most important part of(最重要的部分)。
6.At the core of Portable Light technology are devices called high—brightness light—emitting 643
diodes, or HB LEDs:本句是倒装句,主语是“devices called high—brightness light—emitting diodes,or HB LEDs”,谓语动词是“are”。high.brightness light.emitting diodes可译为“高亮度发光二极管。
练习:
1.To make a living, the Huichol create artwork and
A.sell it to tourists in their villages.
B.sell it in cities far away from their villages.
C.display it in their village museum.
D.keep it in their homes to attract tourists.
2.Why can Portable Lights emit light?
A.Electronic crystals are woven into fabrics.
B.Items such as clothes and bags are used to carry lights.
C.The sun’s energy is collected during the day.
D.All of the above.
3.What does Sheila Kennedy say about Portable Lights?
A.This invention can change the lives of people,both rich and poor.
B.They are widely used in the United States.
C.Portable Lights can help poor people around the world to get light.
D.They are expensive to make but easy to carry.
4.What is the most important part of the Portable Light technology?
A.HB LEDs
B.Glass Bulbs.
C.Incandescent lights.
D.Heated metal coils.
5.LEDs are different from light bulbs in that
A.LEDs are incandescent lights while light bulbs are not.
B.LEDs have a metal coil while light bulbs have not.
C.LEDs emit colored light while most light bulbs don’t.
D.LEDs are made up of tiny pieces of rock while light bulbs are not.
答案与题解:
1.B 短文的第一段提供了答案,该段告诉我们,维克人为了谋生,制作工艺品,并到几百英里以外的城市去销售。
2.D文章的第二和第三段包括了A、B和C所述内容。所以D是答案。
3.C 短文的第四和第五段提供了答案。短文第四段的句子说了Potable Lights可以在世界范围内改变穷乡僻壤用不上电的人们的生活,C准确地表达了这层意思,所以是答案0 A不是答案,说Potable Lights能改变富人穷人的生活,不符合原文的意思。短文没有提及Portable Lights在美国使用,也没有说Portable Lights是否花费很大。所以B和D都不是答案。
4.A第六段的第一句提供了答案。Portable Lights技术的最主要部分是high—brightness light—emitting diodes,即高亮度发光二极管。
5.C短文的第六段对light bulbs进行了描述。第二句中的those glass bulbs即指第一句中的light bulbs。因此,LEDs不是incandescent lights(白炽灯),也没有金属丝。所以A和B均是错误的选择。最后一段的第一个句子LEDs,on the other hand,are like tiny pieces of rock made up of molecules that are arranged in a crystal structure中的like pieces of rock,不等于 pieces。
第七篇 Sugar Power for Cell Phones
Using enzymes commonly found in living cells,a new type of fuel cell produces small amounts of electricity from sugar.If the technology is able to succeed in mass production,you may some day share your sweet drinks with your cell phone.
In fuel cells,chemical reactions generate electrical currents.The process usually relies on precious metals,such as platinum.In living cells,enzymes perform a similar job,breaking down sugars to obtain electrons and produce energy.
When researchers previously used enzymes in fuel cells,they had trouble keeping them active,says Shelley D.Minteer of St Louis University1.Whereas biological cells continually produce fresh enzymes,there’s no mechanism in fuel cells to replace enzymes as they quickly degrade. Minteer and Tamara Klotzbach,also of St Louis University,have now developed polymers that wrap around an enzyme and preserve it in a microscopic pocket.“We tailor these pockets to provide the ideal microenvironment” for the enzyme,Minteer says.The polymers keep the enzyme active for months instead of days.
In the new fuel Cell,tiny polymer bags of enzyme are embedded in a membrane that coats one of the electrodes.When glucose from a sugary liquid gets into a pocket,the enzyme oxidizes it,releasing electrons and protons.The electrons cross the membrane and enter a wire through which they travel to the other electrode,where they react with.oxygen in the atmosphere to produce water.The flow of electrons through the wire constitutes an electrical current that can generate power.
So far,the new fuel cells don’t produce much power,but the fact that they work at all is exciting,says Paul Kenis,a chemical engineer at the University of Illinois2 at Urhana-Champaign3.“Just getting it to work.” Kenis says,“is a major accomplishment.”
Sugar-eating fuel cells could be an efficient way to make electricity.Sugar is easy to find. And the new fuel cells that run on it are biodegradable,so the technology wouldn’t hurt the environment.The scientists are now trying to use different enzymes that will get more power from sugar.They predict that popular products may be using the new technology in as little as 3 years.
词汇:
enzyme / 5enzaIm / n.酶 electrode/ I5lektrEJd / n.电极platinum / 5plAtinEm / n.铂,白金 membrane/ 5membrein / n.膜,薄膜
electron / I5lektrRn / n.电子 oxidize/ 5Cksi7daiz / v.氧化degrade / di5^reid / v.降解 glucose / 5^lu:kEus / n.葡萄糖
polymer / 5pClimE / n.聚合物 biodegradable / 7baiEudi5^reidEbl / adj.能进行生物降解的 microenvironment n.微环境 embed/ im5bed / v.埋置,插入
proton/ 5prEutCn /n.质子
试题
1. According to the first paragraph,when can we share our sweet drinks with our
cell phones?
A When enzymes can be commonly found in living ceils.
B When the technology of producing a new type of fuel cell appears.
C When the technology of a new type of fuel cell is suitable for mass
production.
D When the technology of mass producing cell phones appears.
2. What trouble did Minteer and Klotzhach have in their research?

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