2014职称英语(卫生类A)

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摘要

Good or Bad?
Saccharin(糖精) is the only truly man-made sweetener. It was discovered by accident 100 years ago in an experiment with coal tar(煤焦油). In the experiment, a scientist got some substance (which later he knew was saccharin) on his finger. “Later, at dinner, he put his finger into his mouth and noticed the sweet taste,” says Eric Walters, professor of biochemistry at the Chicago Medical School.
Containing no calories, saccharin is not absorbed by the human body. It began to be disliked by people during the late 1970s and early 1980s when one set of studies showed that it caused cancer in laboratory animals. According to Walters, it is not fair to saccharin because the studies were not perfect.
More recent testing with other animals with small amounts of saccharin has not repeated the same results. Even with these experimental results, saccharin labels are still required to carry a warning saying it has been shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals. In 1990, saccharin was allowed to be sold in the market again.
Because it is hundreds of times sweeter than table sugar, only a small amount of saccharin is used at home, in restaurants or in the food-making industry.
Another sweetener we commonly use is aspartame(甜味剂). It is not so sweet as saccharin, but much sweeter than table sugar. Unlike saccharin, however, aspartame can be absorbed into the body. It contains 4 calories per gram, the same as table sugar. But aspartame is 180 times sweeter than sugar. Although aspartame is found in thousands of products, its safety, like saccharin, has still been uncertain. Nevertheless, people allow its use in all foods and drinks.
“In my opinion, aspartame is as safe as sugar—but then there are those who think white sugar is dangerous,” says Walters. “Between aspartame and saccharin, I would pick aspartame. But at normal use levels, I think saccharin is safe too.”
1. When talking about saccharin and aspartame, Eric Walters most probably thinks that aspartame is safer than saccharin.
A. Right
B. Wrong
C. Not mentioned
正确的答案是: A
2. After doing many experiments, Walters finally found saccharin at dinner.
A. Right
B. Wrong
C. Not mentioned
正确的答案是: B
3. Aspartame is sweeter than saccharin when in hot drinks.
A. Right
B. Wrong
C. Not mentioned
正确的答案是: C
4. Because saccharin was reported to have caused cancer in lab animals, it got a bad name.
A. Right
B. Wrong
C. Not mentioned
正确的答案是: A
5. Saccharin and aspartame are quite safe at normal use levels, but cause cancer in rats.
A. Right
B. Wrong
C. Not mentioned
正确的答案是: B
6. Saccharin can be absorbed into the body but has no calories.
A. Right
B. Wrong
C. Not mentioned
正确的答案是: B
7. White sugar is considered dangerous if taken in excess.
A. Right
B. Wrong
C. Not mentioned
正确的答案是: C
Learning Disorder—Dyslexia
As many as 20% of all children in the United States suffer from some form of the learning disorder called dyslexia.
Experts on dyslexia say that the problem is not a disease. They say that persons with dyslexia use information in a different way. One of the worlds great thinkers and scientists Albert Einstein was dyslexic. Einstein said that he never thought in words the way that most people do. He said that he thought in pictures instead. The American inventor Thomas Edison was also dyslexic. Dyslexia first was recognized in Europe and the United States more than 80 years ago. Many years passed before doctors discovered that persons with the disorder were not mentally slow or disabled. The doctors found that the brains of persons with dyslexia are different. In most people, the left side of
the brain—the part that controls language—is larger than the right side. In persons with dyslexia, the right side of the brain is bigger. Doctors are not sure what causes this difference. However, research has shown that dyslexia is more common in males than in females, and it is found more often in persons who are left-handed. No one knows the cause of dyslexia, but some scientists believe that it may result from chemical changes in a baby’s body long before it is born. They are trying to find ways to teach persons with dyslexia Dyslexic persons think differently and need special kinds of teaching help. After they have solved their problems with language, they often show themselves to be especially intelligent or creative.
1.One out of five American children suffers from dyslexia.
A. Right
B. Wrong
C. Not mentioned
正确的答案是: A
2. Many great thinkers and scientists in the world are dyslexic.
A. Right
B. Wrong
C. Not mentioned
正确的答案是: C
3. The first cases of dyslexia in Europe were discovered less than a century ago. 
A. Right
B. Wrong
C. Not mentioned
正确的答案是: A
4. The left side of the brain in a dyslexic person is bigger than the right side. 
A. Right
B. Wrong
C. Not mentioned
正确的答案是: B
5. Generally speaking, dyslexia is more common in lefthanded males than in righthanded females. 
A. Right
B. Wrong
C. Not mentioned
正确的答案是: A
6. It is believed that dyslexia is related to the bad habits of a baby’s mother.
A. Right
B. Wrong
C. Not mentioned
正确的答案是: C
7. Dyslexic people often turn out to be intelligent or creative once they have learned to handle language properly.
A. Right
B. Wrong
C. Not mentioned
正确的答案是: A
The Fat Problem that Men Face
It is a pleasure to see men of a certain age worrying about their weight. Listening to them is not such a pleasure. Because the men are new at the game, they don’t hesitate to discuss the fat problem incessantly. However women of the same age do not discuss the fat problem, especially not in mixed company. They prefer to face the problem with quiet dignity. Discussing the problem might only draw attention to some stray body part that may be successfully tucked away under an article of clothing.
The age at which a man begins to explore the fat problem can vary. The actual problem can manifest itself in the early 30’s, but broad-range discussion usually starts later. There are early nonverbal symptoms. I’ve watched the
rugged journalist who shares my apartment sneak by with a Diet Coke. His shirts are no longer neatly tucked in to display a trim waist. Recently he has begun to verbalize his anxiety. He tells me, with a sheepish grin, that he is taking his suits to Chinatown to have them “tailored”.
Still-older men have lost their dignity and rattle on unabashedly. Often wives and children play important roles in their fat-inspection rituals. Take my oldest brother, a former college football player. His daughter says that several times a day he will stand at attention and call out, “Fat, medium or thin?” She knows the correct answer:medium. Thin would be an obvious stretch, and fat may not get her that new video. According to his wife, he stands in front of the mirror in the morning(before the day’s meals take their toll), puts his hands behind his head and lurches into a side bend, then clutches the roll that has developed and says, “am I getting fatter?”His wife is expected to answer, “you look like you may have lost a few pounds”.职称英语考试
And then there are the ex-husbands a pitiful group. They are extremely vocal. When I go to the movies with one, he confides that he is suffering from great hunger because he is dieting. He hasn’t eaten since the pancakes and sausages he wolfed down that morning. He pauses in his monologue while he buys his popcorn. After the movie, we sprint to a restaurant, where he again pauses to devour a basket of bread. Before he orders his chaste salad and soup, he grows plaintive. Do I think he’s fat?
1. Men of a certain age are always ready to talk about their fat problem.
A. Right
B. Wrong
C. Not mentioned
正确的答案是: A
2. Women of a certain age do not discuss the fat problem, especially in the presence of men.
A. Right
B. Wrong
C. Not mentioned
正确的答案是: A
3. Men usually begin to worry about their weight when they are nearly 40.
A. Right
B. Wrong
C. Not mentioned
正确的答案是: B
4. The journalist used to drink Diet Coke and tuck his shirts in order to keep trim.
A. Right
B. Wrong
C. Not mentioned
正确的答案是: B
5. Men older than the journalist never hesitate to talk about their fat problem yet would be displeased if their family members tell them the truth.
A. Right
B. Wrong
C. Not mentioned
正确的答案是: A
6. My oldest brother’s daughter would not tell her father he is fat because she loves him so much that she cannot bear to upset him.
A. Right
B. Wrong
C. Not mentioned
正确的答案是: B
7. The ex-husbands are pitiful because they have got no wives to sympathize with their fat problem.
A. Right
B. Wrong
C. Not mentioned
正确的答案是: C

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