阀门大学毕业论文英文文献翻译及原文

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摘要阀门大学毕业论文英文文献翻译及原文rn毕业设计(论文)外文文献翻译_文献、资料中文题目:阀门文献、资料英文题目:文献、资料来源:文献、资料发表(出版)日期:院(部):专班姓学业:级:名:号:__指导教师:翻译日期:20170214______2Surveyofliterature_InthischapterasurveyofliteratureaboutcheckvalvesispresentedThethemeswhichpassinreviewprintedinboldtypearelistedinanorder,whichcorrespondswiththechronologicalorderoftherelevantpublicationsAftertheintroductionofatheme_theassociatedworkofotherresearchersistreatedunderthesameheading__2文献综述这一章阐述了有关单向阀的文献调研。通过审核的题目(粗体印刷)已在表单中列出,相关刊物根据年代顺序排序。引入题目后,其他研究人员的相关工作,在同一标题下表明。_21SurveyofliteraturePioneersStudiesintothehydrodynamicbehaviourofcheckvalvesbeginintheearlyfiftiesLivingston1954describessteady-statecharacteristics_measuredforawidevarietyofcheckvalvesThefirstdynamictestsareperformedin1951ina3testloopPooletal,1962__21文献综述单向阀的流体力学行为的先驱研究始于五十年代初。利文斯通(1954)描述了稳态特性,并测量了各种各样的单向阀。第一次动态测试于1951年在3“测试循环进行(水池等,1962)。__EsleeckandRosser1959arethefirst-onesthatdescribethephenomenonofcheckvalveclosureindetailTheyrecognizetheoccurrenceofreverseflowandassociatedpressuresurgesduetoadelayedvalveclosure__埃斯利克和罗瑟(1959)是最先详细地描述单向阀封闭现象的人。他们认识到了由阀门延迟关闭所引起的逆流以及相应的压力激增。______Aone-dimensionalIDvalveequationofmotionisdevelopedforaswingtypecheckvalveTheequationisbasedonthesecondlawofNewton,takingintoaccountgravitational_inertia_springandhydrodynamiceffectsInthestand-alonevalvemodelthefluidvelocity-timehistoryisusedasaboundarycondition_andderivedfromaseparatesurgeanalysisinwhichthecheckvalveiskeptfullyopenThesurgeanalysisisrestrictedtopositiveflowsAfterflowreversalthefluidvelocity-timehistoryisassumedtobelinear__一维阀的运动方程(ID)是为摆动式单向阀而设计开发的。此方程式以牛顿第二定律为根据,考虑到重力,惯性,弹簧力和流体动力效应。在“独立”的阀模型中流体的速度-时间历程被用作边界条件,且在单向阀保持完全打开的单独喘振分析中得出。喘振分析仅限于正流量。流向变换后的流体的速度-时间历程被认为是线性的。_ThevalvemodelisusedtocalculatethevalvediscpositionintimeandthemaximumreverseflowattheinstantofclosureAssumingthatthereductionofthereverseflowtozerotakesplaceinstantaneously_thepressuresurgesduetocheckvalveclosurearecalculatedfromtheJoukowskyequation__阀模型被用来计算阀盘的位置以及闭合瞬间最大反向流量。假设逆流减少到零瞬间发生,由单向阀关闭所引起的压力波动,可从Joukowsky方程计算得出。_Stand-alonevalvemodelsFollowingEsleeckandRosser1959manyresearchersdevelopstand-alonevalvemodelsbasedonaIDvalveequationofmotionegWorster,1959and1960Pooletal_1962Lewinsky-Kesslitz_1965Douglas_1969Gwinn_1974DeichandJorgl_1981Koch_1981ThorleyandOei,1981EllisandMualla,1983Provoost_1983aand1983bValibouseandVerry_1983GronauandZwink,1984Schneider_1985__继Esleeck和罗瑟(1959)的单机阀模型后,许多研究人员基于ID阀运动方程开发了单机阀模型,(例如:沃斯特,1959年和1960年;普尔等,1962年;莱温斯基-Kesslitz,1965年;道格拉斯,1969年;Gwinn,1974年;Deich和Jorgl,1981年;科赫,1981年;埃利斯和穆阿拉,1983年;普罗沃斯特,1983年a和1983b;Valibouse和VERRY,1983;Gronau和Zwink1984年;施耐德,1985年)。______Ingeneraltheinertiaofthemovingelementsandthegravitational_buoyancyandspringeffectsaredescribedinanunambigiousandstraightforwardway__一般情况下,移动元素,重力,浮力和弹簧力的惯性通过一种明确和直接的方式来描述。_AddedmasseffectsaretakenintoaccountbyWorster1959_ThorleyandOei1981andSchneider1985asthemassofasphereoffluidwithdiameterequaltothediscdiameterFrictioneffectsaredescribedinseveralwaysbyWorster1960_Pooletal1962,DeichandJorgl1981,ThorleyandOei1981_GronauandZwink1984__沃斯特(1959),索利和Oei(1981),Schneider(1985),都考虑了附加质量的影响,比如直径等于盘直径的流体球的质量。沃斯特(1960年),普尔等人(1962),Deich和Jorgl(1981),索利和Oeil(1981),Gronau和Zwink(1984)在多个方面论述了摩擦效应。__However_mostofthedifferencesarefoundinthedescriptionanddeterminationofthehydrodynamiceffectsWorster1959_Pooletal1962andKoch1981basethehydrodynamictorqueonrelativevelocitiesbetweenthefluidandthediscProvoost1983abasesthehydrodynamictorqueontherelativeflowbetweenthefluidandthediscThorleyandOei1981andEllisandMualla1983derivethehydrodynamictorquefromclosurecharacteristicsmeasuredunderstagnantflowconditionsinwaterWorster1959andValibouseandVerry1983obtainthehydrodynamicforcesfromsteadyflowmeasurementsValibouseandVerry1983describehydrodynamicforcestakingintoaccounttheeffectofamovingdiscandanacceleratingfluidSchneider1985derivesthehydrodynamicforcesandtorquesfrompotentialflowtheory_modellingthevalveasasourceinaparallelpipeflowDampingeffectsarenotconsideredbytheabove-mentionedresearchers__然而,动压效应的说明和测定中存在很多差异。沃斯特(1959),普尔等(1962)______和Koch(1981)在流体和盘之间的相对速度基础上,研究流体动力扭矩。普罗沃斯特(1983年),根据流体和盘之间的相对流动研究流体动力扭矩。索利和Oei(1981),Ellis和穆阿拉(1983)从水的流动停滞条件下测得的封闭特性推导出流体力学扭矩。沃斯特(1959),Valibouse和Verry(1983)测量稳定的流量获得水动力。Valibouse和Verry(1983)考虑了移动盘和加速流体影响下的水动力。施耐德(1985)从势流理论推导水动力和扭矩,在一个平行的流(管道)中建源阀模型。上述的研究人员没有考虑阻尼效应。_On-sitetestsWhitemanandPearsall1959describeon-siteteststostudytheclosurebehaviourofswingtypecheckvalvesinasewagemulti-pumpstationDuringpumpshutdownthepressuredropacrossapartlyopenedvalveisusedasameasurefortheflowrate__在现场测试的怀特曼和皮尔萨尔(1959),阐述了污水泵站中摆动式单向阀封闭行为的现场测试。在泵关闭期间,通过一个部分打开的阀的压力降被用来侧流速。_FollowingWhitemanandPearsal1959on-sitetestsaredescribedbyegDouglas1969,Fox1980_ErdodyandBokemeier1981,Koch1981_HsuandRamey1988__继怀特曼和Pearsal(1959)之后,道格拉斯(1969年),福克斯(1980),Erdody和Bokemeier(1981),科赫(1981),Hsu和雷米(1988)描述了现场测试。_LaboratorytestsWorster1959describesalaboratorytestfacilityforthe”dynamictestingof2checkvalvesTheflowrateintimeismeasuredfromthechangeofthewaterlevelinanairvessel__实验室测试沃斯特(1959)介绍了2“止回阀“动态”测试的实验室测试设备。某一时间的流速通过空气罐中的水位的变化来测量。_Pooletal1962describea10”testloop_whichisdesignedafterexperienceswith3and6loopsThefirstexperimentsinthe3loopareperformedin1951__普尔等(1962)在3和6循环实验后设计了一个10循环测试,3“循环中的第一个实验在1951年进行。_Provoost1980describesatestfacilityforthedynamictestingofcheckvalvesuptodiametersof12inhorizontalandverticalposition,usinganelectro-magneticflowmeterCollierandHoemer1982describeatestfacilityforthedynamictestingofcheckvalvesin______horizontal12andvertical6position_usingavelocityprobeasflowmeterPake1983describesatestfacilityforthedynamictestingofcheckvalvesuptodiametersof12inhorizontalandverticalposition_usinganelectro-magneticflowmeterValibouseandVerry1983describeatestfacilityforthesimulationofthecheckvalveclosure_startingfromstagnantflowconditions_wherebythevalveiskeptfullyopenKoetzier_KruisbrinkandLavooij1986describeatestfacilityforthedynamictestingofcheckvalvesuptodiametersof32,usinganelectro-magneticflowmeter__普罗沃斯特(1980)描述了一种用一个电磁流量计测试单向阀的动态测试设施,且水平和垂直位置直径达到12,。Collier和Hoemer(1982)描述的单向阀动态测试设备,直径水平位置(12“),垂直位置(6”),使用速度流量计探头。帕克(1983)描述的测试单向阀的动态测试设施,水平和垂直位置直径12“,用一个电磁流量计valibouse和Verry(1983)描述的测试设备,用于单向阀封闭仿真,在流量停滞条件下开始,从而阀保持完全打开。koetzier,Kruisbrink和Lavooij(1986)描述了使用电磁流量计,单向阀的直径到32“的动态测试设施。_StandardsIn1959theDutchstandardcomesoutforcheckvalvesinwateruptodiametersof50mmStandard_1959Inthestandardthegeneraldemandswithrespecttomaterials_dimensions,flanges_etcaredescribedWithrespecttothehydrodynamicbehaviourtheminimumflowcapacityisspecifiedatpressurelossesof5and100kPaLeakage_openingpressureanddurabilitytestsareprescribedThefirstrevisionofthisstandardappearsin1975Standard,1975a__标准1959年荷兰标准规定水中单向阀的直径为50毫米(标准,1959年)。标准中,材料,尺寸,法兰等一般要求都有说明。对于流体动力学行为,最小流量容量在5和100千帕的压力损失下指定。泄漏,开放压力和耐用性测试也有规定。本标准的第一次修订是在1975年(标准,1975A)。__In1963theGermanequivalentoftheabove-mentionedDutchstandardappearswithafirstrevisionin1975Standard_1975bWithrespecttothehydrodynamicbehaviourherealsoenergylosstestsare______prescribedIn1977thesecondeditionoftheAPIstandardforwafer-typecheckvalvescomesoutStandard,1977Inthestandardthegeneraldemandswithrespecttodesign_materials_dimensionsandwarrantyaredescribedWithrespecttothehydrodynamicbehaviourleakagetestsareprescribedIn1990theDutchstandardappearsforcheckvalvesuptodiametersof1200mmStandard_1990Thisistheequivalentoftheabove-mentionedDutchstandardStandard_1959WithrespecttothehydrodynamicbehaviourleakagetestsareprescribedWithrespecttoenergylossesthevalvelosscoefficientisspecifiedwithincertainlimitsasfunctionofthefluidvelocityAlthoughpressuresurgesduetovalveclosurearerecognizedandsurgecontroldevicesarementioned_nodynamicdemandsaredescribedAnalyticalvalvemodelsWorster1960linearizesthevalveequationofmotionandassumesacosines-shapedvelocity-timefunctionAnalyticalexpressionsarederivedforthevalvediscpositionandthetimelagbetweenflowreversalandvalveclosureCombes1982andProvoost1983bdescribeasimpleanalyticalmethodtoestimatethereverseflowvelocity_basedontheassumptionthatthevalvedisplacedvolumeisequaltothefluiddisplacedvolumeduringclosureInertiaeffectsareneglected__1963年,德国相当于上述荷兰标准出现在1975年第一次修订(标准,1975年b)。这里描述了相关流体力学行为的能量损耗测试。晶片型单向阀自带的API标准,在1977年的第二版(1977年标准)。在标准设计,材料,尺寸和保修的总体要求进行了描述。对于流体力学行为漏电流测试的规定。在1990年荷兰的标准出现止回阀直径为1200毫米(标准型,1990)。这是相当于上述荷兰标准(标准,1959年)。对于流体力学行为漏电流测试的规定。相对于能量损失,阀的损耗系数被指定作为流体的速度的功能,在一定限度内。虽然压力激增,由于阀门关闭,确认和喘振控制装置中提到,没有“动态”的要求进行了说明。分析阀型号沃斯特(1960)阀的运动方程线性化,并假设一个余弦形的速度-时间功能。解析表达式,导出为阀位和流动逆转和阀门关闭之间的时间滞后。______孔布(1982)和普罗沃斯特(1983b)描述了一个简单的分析方法来估计反向的流量,流速,根据该阀的排水体积等于在闭合过程中的流体的排水体积的假设。惯性的影响忽略不计。_ValveslammingGwinn1974usesasimplifiedIDvalvemodeltocalculatetheimpactspeedofthevalvedisconitsseat_simulatingtheeventofpiperuptureatdifferentinitialvalvediscpositionsandlinepressuresAthresholdimpactspeed_correspondingtovisiblefractureofthedisc,isusedtojudgeunderwhichconditionsthevalvewillsurviveanevent__Collier1983studiesthephenomenonofcheckvalvehammerintriplexrecipro-catingpumpsKim1989studiesthechatterbehaviourofcheckvalvesduringthechangeoverofthefeedwaterpumpsinaboilingwaterreactorValvedesignOKeefe1976describesdesignfeaturesforseveraltypesofcheckvalveswithrespecttosealing,wear,discsupportandhingeing,openinganglestroke_temperatureeffectsandapplicationsThorley1983,Follmer1987andWeisshaupletal1989describesometimesconflictingdesignfeaturestoimprovethecheckvalveresponse__阀砰击Gwinn(1974)使用一个简化的ID阀模型来计算其阀座上的阀盘的冲击速度,模拟在不同的初始阀盘位置和线压力下管破裂的情况。阈值影响下的速度,相应阀盘的可见裂缝,被用于判断阀门将在何种条件下在事故中存留。科利尔(1983)研究了三缸往复式泵中单向阀锤击的现象。金(1989)研究了沸水反应堆中给水泵转换期间单向阀的振动行为。阀门设计奥基夫(1976)介绍了几种类型的止回阀的设计特点,包括密封,耐磨损,盘片支持和铰链,开启角度(冲程),温度效应和应用。索利(1983),福尔默(1987)和Weisshaupl等人(1989)描述了(有时相互冲突)用以提高止回阀响应的设计特点。_Follmer1987introducestheNnaturalclosingtimeiethevalveclosuretimeunderstagnantflowconditions_eginairasameasureforthevalveresponseBasedondynamicteststhenaturalclosingtimeofatiltingdisccheckvalveisrelatedtothemaximumreverseflowvelocityThesemi-empiricalmethodisusedtoimprovecheckvalveresponse__福尔默(1987)介绍了“自然关闭时间”(即滞流条件下,例如在空气中阀门关闭时间)作为阀响应的衡量。在动态测试的基础上,倾斜瓣单向阀的自然闭合时间与最高反向流速有关。此半经验方法可用来改善单向阀响应。_SpecialapplicationsSteenhovenandDongen1979studytheclosurebehaviourof__theaortavalveinthehumanheartSaurenetal1981investigatetheoperationofaortavalvesforthebenefitofthedesignofartificialheartvalves______Horsten1990developsanumericalfluid-structureinteractionmodelofheartvalvesCleijneandSmulders1987studythebehaviourofapistontypecheckvalveinawindmill-drivenwaterpump__特殊应用Steenhoven和东恩(1979)研究了人类的心脏主动脉瓣的关闭行为。sauren等(1981)研究了主动脉瓣膜操作,有利于人工心脏瓣膜的设计。Horsten(1990)开发了一个数值化流体-结构相互作用的心脏瓣膜模型。Cleijne和Smulders(1987)研究了风车驱动的水泵中活塞式单向阀的行为。_Fluid-structureanalysisChoandKane1980combineafluidandstructureanalysisto__investigatethethermalstressbehaviouroftiltingdisccheckvalveswithdashpotintheprimarysodiumloopsofapowerplantThecomputercodeusedforthefluidanalysisprovidesthe2Daxi-symmetricalflowdistribution_heattransfercoefficientsandliquidtemperaturesforspecifiedtransientconditionsThetemperaturedataareusedinathermalstressanalysistoinvestigatetheabilityofthevalvetowithstandthermalcyclesDooleyandMosby1983performafluid-structureanalysistostudytheeventofpiperuptureinthefeedwaterloopofasteamreactorHDR-Hei3dampfreaktor_withaplugtypecheckvalvewithinternalpistondamperTheflowconditionsareobtainedfromatransientcomputercodeandusedinastructuralanalysisasboundaryconditionMuller1987studiesthepiperuptureintheHDRusingcomputercodesfora3DstructuralanalysisandIDfluidtransientanalysiswithtwo-phaseflowandvalvemodelincoupledanduncoupledmode__流体结构分析町和凯恩(1980)结合流体和结构分析,调查在电厂主要钠回路中带减震器的倾斜盘式单向阀热应力行为。用于流体分析的计算机代码提供二维(轴对称)流量分配,传热系数和指定的瞬态条件下的液体温度。温度数据应用于热应力分析,研究阀承受热循环的能力。Dooley和莫斯(1983)做了流体结构分析来研究在蒸汽反应(HDR-Hei3dampfreaktor)给水循环中的管道破裂事故,使用的是内部活塞阻尼器插件式单向阀。流动条件由瞬态计算机代码获得,在结构分析中作为边界条件。穆勒(1987)研究了HDR中的的管路破裂,使用的是耦合和非耦合模型中三维结构分析所用计算机代码和ID流体瞬态分析(两相流和阀模型)。_ValvewearCollier1980studiesthewearofcheckvalvesRelativewearratesaregivenfor__valveswithupstreamflowdisturbanceslikereducersandelbowsOtherwearstudiesaredescribedbyCollieretal1983andJeanmougin1986__阀磨损科利尔(1980)研究了单向阀的磨损。相对磨损率由阀上游流动扰动给出,如减速机和弯头。Collier等人(1983)Jeanmougin(1986)描述了其他磨损的研究。。______PiperupturetestsKirikandGradle1980describeatestfacilityforthedynamictestingof6__checkvalvesinwaterAnupstreamrupturediscisusedtosimulatetheeventofpiperupturefrominitial_stagnantflowconditionswithanartificiallyopenedvalveDooleyandMosby1983,TravisandTorrey1985andMuller1987performtestsinafeedwaterloopofasteamreactorwithaplugtypecheckvalvewithinternalpistondamperTheeventofpiperuptureissimulatedfrominitial_steadyflowconditionsusingarupturediscTheexperiments_performedinaformer100MWnuclearpowerplantinGermany_areusedasbenchmarkproblemGermanstandardproblem4AwithrespecttothesafetyofnuclearpowerplantsRommeletal1984_Huetetal1987_PanetandMartin1988andHenryetal1989describetestfacilitiesintheUSAandFranceforthesimulationofpiperupturefrominitial_stagnantflowconditionsusingrupturediscsYamadaandImao1987describeatestfacilityforthedynamictestingof4checkvalves_simulatingpumptripandpiperupturePiperuptureissimulatedfrominitial_steadyflowconditionsbyasuddendropoftheupstreampressuretoatmos-phericconditionsThedownstreamlengthofthemeasuringsectioncanbevariedfrom5to50m__管路破裂测试Kirik和Gradle(1980)描述了水中6单向阀的动态测试设施。单向阀的上游破裂盘用来模拟最初的流动停滞条件下人为开阀的管路破裂事故。Dooley和莫斯(1983),Travis和托里(1985),穆勒(1987)进行的测试,是在使用内部活塞阻尼器插件式单向阀的蒸汽反应器给水循环中。从初始,稳流的条件下使用爆破片模拟管道破裂事故。实验在德国一个100兆瓦的核电厂进行,被用于与核电站的安全问题相关的基准问题(德国标准问题4A)。隆美尔等(1984),休特等(1987),Panet和Martin(1988)和亨利等人(1989)描述了在美国和法国的试验设施,在最初的流量停滞条件下使用爆破片模拟管道破裂。Yamada和Imao(1987)描述了一个4“止回阀的动态测试设备,模拟泵跳闸和管道破裂管道破裂是在初始稳定的流量条件下,通过大气状况的上游压力突降模拟的。测量部分的下游长度,可以是多种多样的,从5至50米。_ValvemodelscoupledtopipeequationsProvoost1980proposestocouplevalvemodelsto__theequationsfortransientflowinpipelinesystemsThisapproachisfollowedbyseveralresearcherslikeEllis1980_KirikandGradle1980,ErdodyandBokemeier1981,Koch1981_Kubie1982,EllisandMualla1983_Provoost1983a_Siikonen1983,ValibouseandVerry1983_Rommeletal1984,TravisandTorrey1985,EllisandMualla1986,Henryetal1989_Kim1989,andSuzukietal1991Thecombinationofvalvemodelandpipelinemodeloffersopportunitiestostudytheinteractionbetweenvalveandpipeline_whichisessentialinthebehaviourofdampedcheckvalvesKirikandGradle1980developamodelofapistontypecheckvalvewithaninternaldashpotKubie1982developsamodelofaplugtypecheckvalvewithdampingholesandaircushionProvoost1983amodelsacheckvalveusedinthecoolingwatercircuitofapowerplantto______

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